FAST earlyReading Spanish

Onset Sounds Spanish

Cost Technology, Human Resources, and Accommodations for Special Needs Service and Support Purpose and Other Implementation Information Usage and Reporting

The Formative Assessment System for Teachers (FAST) is a cloud-based suite of assessment and reporting tools that includes earlyReading Spanish. As of 2013-14, there is a $5 per student per year charge for the system. As a cloud-based assessment suite, there are no hardware costs or fees for additional materials. 

Computer and internet access is required for full use.

Testers will require less than 1 hour of training.

Paraprofessionals can administer the test.

FastBridge Learning
520 Nicollet Mall
Suite 910
Minneapolis, MN 55402-1057
Phone: 612-254-2534

Field tested training manuals are included and should provide all implementation information.

Access to interactive online self-guided teacher training is included at no additional cost. In-person training is available at an additional cost of $300 per hour.

earlyReading is used to monitor student progress in early reading in the early primary grades. Most earlyReading assessments provide information on both the accuracy and rate or efficiency of performance.

The appropriate progress monitoring assessment(s) is/are chosen based on screening performance and are used to diagnose and evaluate skill deficits. Those results help guide instructional and intervention development. It is recommended that Onset Sounds be used for progress monitoring throughout Kindergarten depending on specific student needs.

The Onset Sounds Task is a phonemic awareness task. Students are presented with a set of pictures and are asked to correctly identify the picture that begins with a particular sound or are asked to generate the initial sound for a particular picture. The resulting score is the number of sounds correctly identified or produced.

This tool provides information on students in Spanish. Evidence was based on a sample of Native English-speakers in a Spanish-language immersion school.

Each earlyReading test takes approximately 1-2 minutes to administer. earlyReading is computer administered and scoring is automated; it does not require any additional time to score.

The Onset Sounds assessment has 20 alternate forms.

Raw scores in the form of number correct out of 16 are calculated. Rate (i.e., per minute) score can also be calculated when appropriate. 

 

Reliability of the Performance Level Score

GradeK
RatingFull bubble

Type of Reliability

Age or Grade

n (range)

Coefficient

SEM or CSEM*

Information (including normative data) / Subjects

range

median

Coefficient Alpha

K

532   0.87 - Coefficients were derived from a random sample of students from the FAST database from the 2012-2013 academic year. Approximately 50.2% of the students were female and 49.8% were male. Approximately 68.8% of students were White, 16.4% Hispanic, 8.3% Black, 3.6% Multiracial, and 3% Asian. 

Split-Half

K

532   0.87 - Coefficients were derived from a random sample of students from the FAST database from the 2012-2013 academic year. Approximately 50.2% of the students were female and 49.8% were male. Approximately 68.8% of students were White, 16.4% Hispanic, 8.3% Black, 3.6% Multiracial, and 3% Asian. 

Delayed Test Retest

K

331   0.62 - Fall-Winter; see subject information in Table 1, below.

Delayed Test Retest

K

309   0.51 - Fall to Spring; see subject information in Table 1, below.

Delayed Test Retest

K

176   0.71 - Winter to Spring

 

Table 1. Demographics for Study A

Category

Kindergarten

First Grade

Total Percent

Ethnicity

White

151

159

69.50%

Hispanic

35

34

14.50%

Black

19

9

6.30%

Asian

8

6

3.10%

Gender

Male

109

119

51.10%

Female

114

104

48.90%

Special Education Status

General Education

211

214

95.30%

Special Education

12

9

4.70%

 

Reliability of the Slope

GradeK
RatingEmpty bubble

Type of Reliability

Age or Grade

n (range)

Coefficient

SEM

Information (including normative data) / Subjects

range

median

Reliability of Slope

K

86

-

0.50

-

Using 3 time points: fall, winter, and spring

 

Validity of the Performance Level Score

GradeK
RatingFull bubble

Type of Validity

Age or Grade

Test or Criterion

n (range)

Coefficient

Information (including normative data) / Subjects

range

median

Predictive

K

Aprenda Preprimario 2

87

 

0.25

Fall to Spring prediction:

The majority of students within the immersion schools were White (74%). Students were also identified as either African American (9%), Hispanic (12%), Asian (4%), or other (1%).

Predictive

K

Aprenda Preprimario 2

41

 

0.38

Winter to Spring prediction;

See above.

Concurrent

K

Aprenda Preprimario 2

87

 

0.43

Data collected in Spring

See above.

 

Predictive Validity of the Slope of Improvement

GradeK
RatingEmpty bubble

Type of Validity

Age or Grade

Test or Criterion

n (range)

Coefficient

Information (including normative data)/Subjects

range

median

Predictive Validity of Slope

K

Aprenda Preprimario 2

88

-

<0.01

Data collected in fall, winter, and spring;

See subject information under GOM 3

 

Bias Analysis Conducted

GradeK
RatingNo

Disaggregated Reliability and Validity Data

GradeK
RatingYes

Reliability of the Performance Level Score:

Type of Reliability

Age or Grade

n (range)

Coefficient

SEM

Information (including normative data) / Subjects

Range

Median

Delayed Test Retest

K

12

 

0.76

 

Fall to Winter; Asian

Delayed Test Retest

K

7

 

0.87

 

Winter to Spring; Asian

Delayed Test Retest

K

27

 

0.67

 

Fall to Winter; African American

Delayed Test Retest

K

12

 

0.74

 

Winter to Spring; African American

Delayed Test Retest

K

26

 

0.48

 

Fall to Spring; African American

Delayed Test Retest

K

43

 

0.53

 

Fall to Winter; Hispanic

Delayed Test Retest

K

27

 

0.82

 

Winter to Spring; Hispanic

Test Retest

K

9

 

0.72

 

2-3 Week delay; Hispanic

Delayed Test Retest

K

45

 

0.42

 

Fall to Spring; Hispanic

Delayed Test Retest

K

15

 

0.66

 

Fall to Winter; Multiracial

Delayed Test Retest

K

7

 

0.92

 

Winter to Spring; Multiracial

Delayed Test Retest

K

231

 

0.59

 

Fall to Winter; White

Delayed Test Retest

K

122

 

0.66

 

Winter to Spring; White

Delayed Test Retest

K

211

 

0.51

 

Fall to Spring; White

Test Retest

K

40

 

0.73

 

2-3 Week Delay; White

Disaggregated Validity of the Performance Level Score:

The following disaggregated aReading validity coefficients were derived from a sample of approximately 17,137 Kindergarten students in the FAST system. Approximately 32.2% were female, and 34.7% were male, with approximately 33% of the sample not reporting their gender. Approximately 42.6% of the sample of students were White, 8.5% were African American, 4.9% were Hispanic, 3.5% were Asian, 4.4% were recorded as “Other”, 1.7% were Multiracial, 1.2% were American Indian or Alaska Native, and 0.1% were Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. Approximately 33% of the sample did not report ethnicity/race. Approximately 55.5% of students were reported as not eligible for special education services, while 3.5% of students were receiving special education services. Approximately 40.9% of students did not report their special education status.

Type of Validity

Age or Grade

Test or Criterion

n (range)

Coefficient

Information (including normative data) / Subjects

range

median

Concurrent

K

aReading

17

 

0.35

Fall; Asian

Predictive

K

aReading

17

 

0.32

Fall to Spring; Asian

Predictive

K

aReading

27

 

0.35

Winter to Spring; African American

Predictive

K

aReading

57

 

0.31

Fall to Spring; African American

Concurrent

K

aReading

9

 

0.40

Spring; Hispanic

Predictive

K

aReading

15

 

0.46

Winter to Spring; Multiracial

Concurrent

K

aReading

40

 

0.44

Spring; White

 

Alternate Forms

GradeK
Ratingdash

Rates of Improvement Specified

GradeK
RatingEmpty bubble

1. Is minimum acceptable growth (slope of improvement or average weekly increase in score by grade level) specified in manual or published materials?

Yes.

a. Specify the growth standards:

The table below provides weekly average growth by season and percentile for students in Kindergarten

Metric: Number Correct / 16

Percentile

Kindergarten
(Spring)

90th

2.23

80th

1.69

70th

1.09

60th

0.76

50th

0.46

40th

0.00

30th

0.00

20th

0.00

10th

-0.27

Average

0.69

SD

0.93

N

221

Range

-0.87 - 2.95

b. Basis for specifying minimum acceptable growth:

Norm-referenced weekly growth is calculated.

Normative profile:

Representation: Local
Date: 2013-2014
Number of States: 1
Size: 1,372 total students were included in this sample.
Gender: 52.9% Male, 47.1% Female
Region: Midwest
Race/Ethnicity: 65.3% White, 7.6% Black, 10.4% Hispanic, 10.8% Other, 2.8% Asian/Pacific Islander, 1.8% Multiracial, 1.3% American Indian/Alaska Native
Disability classification: 77% of this sample did not receive special education services. 8.7% of this sample did receive special education services. The special education status of the remaining 14.3% of the sample is unknown.
Grade Distribution: 38.9% kindergarten; 61.1% first grade.

End-of-Year Benchmarks

GradeK
RatingEmpty bubble

1. Are benchmarks for minimum acceptable end-of-year performance specified in your manual or published materials?

Yes.

a. Specify the end-of-year performance standards:

Kindergarten: 13 out of 16 initial sounds correct. 

b. Basis for specifying minimum acceptable end-of-year performance:

Criterion-referenced

c. Specify the benchmarks:

Low risk (High Risk)

Kindergarten:   Fall = 11 (1)

                        Winter = 13 (13)

                        Spring = NA

d. Basis for specifying these benchmarks?

Criterion-referenced.

The primary score for interpretation is number initial word sounds said correct out of 16. Psychometric evidence is provided and supports number correct or correct per minute as the primary methods of interpretation. Accuracy scores are provided as a supplemental score, such that students who perform at less than 95% accuracy are flagged for the user to consider. Our training materials caution the interpretation of rate-based scores until accuracy is approximately 95%. The goals in the system include number correct and number correct per min as the primary index of growth, but also prompt monitoring of the accuracy of student responding. This is designed to help teachers and other users consider multiple aspects of student performance, which includes number correct, errors, rate, and accuracy.

Benchmarks were established for earlyReading to help teachers accurately identify students who are at risk or not at risk for academic failure. These benchmarks were developed from a criterion study examining earlyReading assessment scores in relation to scores on the Aprenda 3 typically using the Preprimario 2 for Kindergarten students and Primario 1 for students in Grade 1. Measures of diagnostic accuracy were used to determine decision thresholds using criteria related to sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC). Specifically, specificity and sensitivity was computed at different cut scores in relation to maximum AUC values.  Decisions for final benchmark percentiles were generated based on maximizing each criterion at each cut score (i.e., when the cut score maximized specificity ≥ 0.70, and sensitivity was also ≥ 0.70; see Silberglitt & Hintze, 2005). Precedence was given to maximizing specificity. Based on these analyses, the values at the 40th and 15th percentiles were identified as the primary and secondary benchmarks for earlyReading, respectively. These values thus correspond with a prediction of performance at the 40th and 15th percentiles on the Aprenda, a nationally normed reading assessment of Spanish early reading skills. Performance above the primary benchmark indicates the student is at low risk for long term reading difficulties. Performance between the primary and secondary benchmarks indicates the student is at some risk for long term reading difficulties. Performance below the secondary benchmark indicates the student is at high risk for long term reading difficulties. These risk levels help teachers accurately monitor student progress using the FAST earlyReading measures. 

Normative profile:

Representation: Local
Date: 2012-2013
Number of States: 1
Size: 176
Gender: Unknown
Region: Upper Midwest
Disability classification: 6%

Procedure for specifying benchmarks:

Diagnostic accuracy was used to determine cutpoints, or benchmarks, at the 15th and 40th percentile. These correspond to high risk and low risk, respectively. 

Sensitive to Student Improvement

GradeK
Ratingdash

Decision Rules for Changing Instruction

GradeK
Ratingdash

Decision Rules for Increasing Goals

GradeK
Ratingdash

Improved Student Achievement

GradeK
RatingEmpty bubble

Design: Random assignment not used.

Unit of assignment: 6 Teachers

Unit of analysis: 6 Teachers

Duration of product implementation: 1 year

Describe analysis: Teachers were surveyed whether or not they agreed that use of this measure improved student achievement. 

Fidelity:

Description of when and how fidelity of treatment information was obtained: Survey results were collected in the Spring after 1 year of implementation. Teachers were required to use the measure based on district requirements.

Results:

Results of the study: 67 and 80% of teachers in kindergarten and first grade agreed that the tool improved student achievement. 

Improved Teacher Planning

GradeK
RatingEmpty bubble

Describe evidence that teachers’ use of the tool results in improved planning:

In a teacher-user survey, 82% of teachers indicated that FAST assessment results were helpful in making instructional grouping decisions (n = 401).  82% of teachers also indicated that assessment results helped them adjust interventions for students who were at-risk (n = 369).  Finally, a majority of teachers indicated that they look at assessment results at least once per month (66%), and nearly a quarter of teachers indicated that they look at assessment results weekly or even more often (n = 376).