Words Their Way: Word Study In Action Developmental Model

Words Their Way: Word Study In Action Developmental Model

Study: Eddy, Ruitman, Hankel, Matelski, & Schmalstig (2011)

Eddy, R. M., Ruitman, T., Hankel, N., Matelski, M. H., & Schmalstig, M. Pearson Words Their Way: Word Study in Action Intervention Efficacy Study Final Report

Descriptive Information

Usage

Acquisition and Cost

Program Specifications and Requirements

Training

Words Their Way (WTW): Word Study In Action Developmental Model uses the research-based developmental approach to word study that is student-centered and assessment driven. The goal of this approach is the progression of word knowledge, including the development of phonics, spelling, word recognition, and vocabulary.
This hands-on program helps students develop essential elements of reading including phonological awareness, phonics and word recognition, and vocabulary. The heart of the Words Their Way program is the sort, or the process of grouping sounds and words into specific categories. Students learn to look closely at words to discover letters, vowel patterns, syllable structures and spelling-meaning connections in English Orthography. The sorting activities include teacher-directed instruction as well as paired and independent learning.
WTW: Word Study in Action Developmental Model consists of 5 stages: Emergent-Early Letter Name, Letter Name, Within Word Pattern, Syllables and Affixes, and Derivational Relations. The sequence of the program is based on the alphabet, pattern, and meaning principles that have been observed in students’ spelling.

WTW is primarily intended for use in kindergarten through fifth grade. It is designed for use with students with learning disabilities, English language learners, and any student at risk of academic failure. The academic area of focus is reading (including phonological awareness, phonics/word study, vocabulary, and spelling).

Word Study in Action is in use throughout the country. The Developmental Model has been sold since 2010 in districts including: Prince George County Schools, Prince George, VA; Roanoke County School, Salem, VA: and East Pennsboro Area School District, Enola, Pa.

Where to obtain:
Pearson
P.O. Box 2500
Lebanon, IN 46052-3009
Phone #: 800-848-9500
Web Site: www.pearsonschool.com

Cost: Initial cost per student for implementing program: $9.97 (includes consumable student book).

Replacement cost per student for subsequent use: $9.97 per student book

Stage specific: Starter packages include the Teacher Guide, Teacher Resource CD, and 10 stage specific student notebooks at each level (Emergent-Early Letter Name, Letter Name, Within Word Pattern, Syllables and Affixes, and Derivational Relations) - $199.95

  • Teacher Resource Guide; A Comprehensive Guide covering all 5 stages of development with research, overview and implementation guidance.
  • Teacher Resource CD-ROM; A Resource CD with teacher modeling sorts, games, and additional sorts.
  • Student Books; Stage-specific student books with readymade picture and/or word cards, a grid for students to sort and paste the picture/word cards, writing the sort activities, and an envelope for students to store the cards for the week.
  • Big Book of Rhymes; Big Books are available to address sorts at the Emergent-Early Letter Name, Letter Name, and Within Word Pattern stages with poems reflecting the skill in each sort - used to introduce the sort. Available separately.

 

WTW is designed for use with individual students and small groups of students. If the program is group-delivered the ideal amount of students is 6 or fewer per small group, however the group can be larger up to the whole class if appropriate.
The program is meant to be administered for 15-20 minutes at a time for 5 sessions a week during the entire school year.

The program includes highly specified teacher manuals.

The program does not require technology. However, a CD-ROM and Whiteboard DVD are available to enhance usage.  

Training is not required for instructors, but 1-4 hours of training is recommended. Training manuals and materials are provided. Training is available via pre-recorded online modules. On-site training is also available. There is a 30 teachers maximum per on site session. On-site implementation essentials includes training needed to implement curriculum with fidelity. Three day workshops are also available.

Instructors must be paraprofessionals and it is assumed instructors have expertise in the knowledge of developmental spelling and word study. This knowledge can be garnered from the Words Their Way professional resource book.

Practitioners may obtain ongoing professional/technical support.

 

Positive and Substantively Meaningful Results: No

Participants: Full bubble

Sample size: 257 students (138 program, 119 control)

Risk Status: Students were identified through standardized test scores and other teacher recommendations; students qualified for participation in the study based on their initial AIMSweb R-CBM reading fluency scores.

Demographics:

  Program Control p of chi square
Number Percentage Number Percentage
Grade level
  Kindergarten          
  Grade 1          
  Grade 2 70 51 58 49 0.751*
  Grade 3          
  Grade 4 68 49 61 51 0.751*
  Grade 5          
  Grade 6          
  Grade 7          
  Grade 8          
  Grade 9          
  Grade 10          
  Grade 11          
  Grade 12          
Mean Age          
Race-ethnicity
  African-American 13 9 14 12 0.597
  American Indian 1 1 1 1
  Asian/Pacific Islander 2 1 4 3
  Hispanic 39 28 23 19
  White 81 59 75 63
  Other 2 1 2 2
Socioeconomic status
  Subsidized lunch 63 46 59 50 0.597
  No subsidized lunch 75 54 60 50
Disability status
  Speech-language impairments 6 4 2 2 .597
  Learning disabilities 1 1 4 3
  Behavior disorders 0 0 0 0
  Mental retardation 0 0 0 0
  Other 2 1 0 0
  Not identified with a disability 6 4 2 2
ELL status
  English language learner 35 25 40 35 .112
  Not English language learner 103 75 76 66
Gender
  Female 64 46 53 45 .768
  Male 74 54 66 55

* p of chi square is combines for grades 2 and 4.

Training of Instructors: Intervention teachers taught reading for an average of 11.8 years.  16 of 23 teachers had received their Master’s degree.  Interventionists received an initial training and a follow-up training covering the Words Their Way program.  Interventionists were also provided with trainers’ contact information and could contact them at any time to receive additional support or ask any questions about the program. 

Design: Full bubble

Did the study use random assignment?: Yes.

If not, was it a tenable quasi-experiment?: Not applicable.

If the study used random assignment, at pretreatment, were the program and control groups not statistically significantly different and had a mean standardized difference that fell within 0.25 SD on measures used as covariates or on pretest measures also used as outcomes?: Yes.

If not, at pretreatment, were the program and control groups not statistically significantly different and had a mean standardized difference that fell within 0.25 SD on measures central to the study (i.e., pretest measures also used as outcomes), and outcomes were analyzed to adjust for pretreatment differences? Not applicable.

Were the program and control groups demographically comparable at pretreatment?: Yes.

Was there attrition bias1? No.

Did the unit of analysis match the unit for random assignment (for randomized studies) or the assignment strategy (for quasi-experiments)?: Yes.

1 NCII follows guidance from the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) in determining attrition bias. The WWC model for determining bias based on a combination of differential and overall attrition rates can be found on pages 13-14 of this document: http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/pdf/reference_resources/wwc_procedures_v2_1_standards_handbook.pdf

 

Fidelity of Implementation: Full bubble

Describe when and how fidelity of treatment information was obtained: The fidelity of implementation was achieved by observing each classroom twice during the study as well as teachers completion of online weekly logs.

Provide documentation (i.e., in terms of numbers) of fidelity of treatment implementation: The average number of minutes teachers were able to implement every week ranged from 74-138 minutes.  Teachers were able to implement, on average, 104% of the recommended time each week, demonstrating that most teachers implemented more than expected.  On average, teachers covered 20.7 sorts.  Additionally teachers were asked to self-rate their level of adherence to the program on a scale of 1-9 each week (1=not at all, 5=somewhat, 9=fully).  The average self-reported degree of implementation was 6.7.

Measures Targeted: Full bubble

Measures Broader: Full bubble

Targeted Measure Score type and range of measure Reliability statistics Relevance to program instructional content
Metropolitan Achievement Tests Eight Edition (Form V): Sounds and Print (Primary 1) Raw Score: 1-40
Scaled Score: 352-679
Percentile Rank: 1-99
Grade Equivalent: K.0-12.9
Internal consistency (Kuder-Richardson)
r-0.91
Test-retest
r-0.91
Measures ability to discriminate sounds and recognize letters, basic words and phoneme-grapheme relationship.
Metropolitan Achievement Tests Eighth Edition (Form V): (Primary 1) Raw Score: 1-30
Scaled Score: 348-634
Percentile Rank: 1-99
Grade Equivalent: K.0-12.9
I Internal consistency (Kuder-Richardson)
r-0.88
Test-retest
r-0.87
Spelling is assessed in context.  Students identify a misspelled word in a sentence.  The spelling of sight words is measured.
Metropolitan Achievement Tests: Eighth Edition (Form V): Sounds and Print (Elementary 1) Raw Score: 1-30
Scaled Score: 447-731
Percentile Rank: 1-99
Grade Equivalent: K.0-12.9
I Internal consistency (Kuder-Richardson)
r-0.83
Test-retest
r-0.85
Measures ability to discriminate sounds and recognize letters, basic words and phoneme-grapheme relationships.
Metropolitan Achievement Tests Eight Edition (Form V): Spelling (Elementary 1) Raw Score: 1-30
Scaled Score: 454-732
Percentile Rank: 1-99
Grade Equivalent: K.0-12.9
I Internal consistency (Kuder-Richardson)
r-0.82
Test-retest
r-0.79
Spelling is assessed in context.  Students identify a misspelled word in a sentence.  The spelling of sight words is measured.


 

Broader Measure Score type and range of measure Reliability statistics Relevance to program instructional content
AIMSweb Reading Curriculum-Based Measurement Raw Score: 0-199
Percentile Rank: 1-99
Test –retest:
Grade 2 Winter-Fall (0.93)
Grade 2 Winter-Spring (0.94)
Grade 4 Fall-Winter (0.95)
Grade 4 Winter-Spring (0.95)
Measure establishes reading fluency (speed and accuracy).

 

 

Number of Outcome Measures: 1 Prereading, 1 Reading, 1 Writing

Mean ES - Targeted: 0.11*

Mean ES - Broader: 0.00

Effect Size:

Targeted Measures

Construct Measure Effect Size
Prereading MAT8 Sounds and Print 0.12
Writing MAT8 Spelling 0.09*

 Broader Measures

Construct Measure Effect Size
Reading AIMSweb R-CBM 0.00

 

Key
*      p ≤ .05
**    p ≤ .01
***       p ≤ .001
–      Developer was unable to provide necessary data for NCII to calculate effect sizes
u      Effect size is based on unadjusted means
†      Effect size based on unadjusted means not reported due to lack of pretest group equivalency, and effect size based on adjusted means is not available

 

Disaggregated Data for Demographic Subgroups: No

Disaggregated Data for <20th Percentile: No

Administration Group Size: Small groups, (n=2-8)

Duration of Intervention: 20 minutes, 4 times a week, 18 weeks

Minimum Interventionist Requirements: Paraprofessional, Training is not required

Intervention Reviewed by What Works Clearinghouse: No

Other Research: Potentially Eligible for NCII Review: 0 studies

Other Research: Ineligible for NCII Review: 0 studies