Behavioral Intervention Tools Chart

Legend

Full Bubble Convincing evidence

Half Bubble Partially convincing evidence

Empty Bubble Unconvincing evidence

Data unavailable Data unavailable

* Effect Size is statistically significant for
   at least one measure

u Effect Size is based on unadjusted means

a Effect sizes are available for measures that
   were equivalent on the pretest.

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This tools chart presents information about behavioral intervention programs. The following four tabs include information and ratings on the technical rigor of the studies

  • Study Quality
  • Study Results
  • Program Information
  • Additional Research

The chart reviews studies about the intervention programs. As a result, you may see the intervention appear more than one time and receive different ratings.

Study Quality
Study Results
Program Info
Additional Research
All
TitleStudyStudy TypeParticipantsDesignFidelity of Impl.Measures (Targeted)Measures (Broader)Mean ES (Targeted)Mean ES (Broader)Visual AnalysisDisag. Outcome Data Available for Dem. SubgroupsTarget Behavior(s)DeliveryFidelity of Implementation Check List AvailableMinimum Interventionist RequirementsIntervention Reviewed by What Works ClearinghouseOther Research: Ineligible for NCII ReviewOther Research: Potentially Eligible for NCII Review
Behavior Education Program (BEP) or Check-in/Check-out (CICO) Campbell & Anderson, (2011) Single-Subject Design Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Small groups (n = approx. 15) Yes Paraprofessional 4-8+ hours of training No 14 studies 12 studies
Behavior Education Program (BEP) or Check-in/Check-out (CICO) Hawken & Horner (2003) Single-Subject Design Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Partially Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Small groups (n = approx. 15) Yes Paraprofessional 4-8+ hours of training No 14 studies 12 studies
Behavior Education Program (BEP) or Check-in/Check-out (CICO) Hawken, Macleod, & Rawlings (2007) Single-Subject Design Partially Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Partially Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Small groups (n = approx. 15) Yes Paraprofessional 4-8+ hours of training No 14 studies 12 studies
Behavior Education Program (BEP) or Check-in/Check-out (CICO) Mong, Johnson, & Mong (2011) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Small groups (n = approx. 15) Yes Paraprofessional 4-8+ hours of training No 14 studies 12 studies
Behavior Education Program (BEP) or Check-in/Check-out (CICO) Todd, Campbell, Meyer, & Horner (2008) Single-Subject Design Partially Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Small groups (n = approx. 15) Yes Paraprofessional 4-8+ hours of training No 14 studies 12 studies
Breaks Are Better Boyd & Anderson (2013) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individual No Paraprofessional, No training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Check and Connect Maynard, Kjellstrand, & Thompson (2014) Group-Design Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable Data Unavailable Data Unavailable N/A No Externalizing, Internalizing Individual No Paraprofessional, 1-2 days in-depth training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Check and Connect Sinclair, Christenson, & Thurlow (2005) Group-Design Partially Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable Data Unavailable Data Unavailable N/A No Externalizing, Internalizing Individual No Paraprofessional, 1-2 days in-depth training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Check and Connect Sinclair, Christenson, Evelo, & Hurley (1998) Group-Design Partially Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable Data Unavailable Data Unavailable N/A No Externalizing, Internalizing Individual No Paraprofessional, 1-2 days in-depth training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Check and Connect Strand & Lovrich (2014) Group-Design Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable Data Unavailable Data Unavailable N/A No Externalizing, Internalizing Individual No Paraprofessional, 1-2 days in-depth training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Check, Connect & Expect Cheney, Stage, Hawken, Lynass, Mielenz, & Waugh (2009) Group-Design Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 0.18* 0.24* N/A No Externalizing Individual, Small group No Paraprofessional, No training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Choice as an Antecedent Intervention Dunlap, DePerczel, Clarke, Wilson, Wright, White et al. (1994) Single-Subject Design Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individuals, Small groups (n=6-8), Classrooms No No specific qualifications of training needed No 0 studies 0 studies
Choice as an Antecedent Intervention Jolivette, Wehby, Canale, & Massey (2001) Single-Subject Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence N/A N/A Partially Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individuals, Small groups (n=6-8), Classrooms No No specific qualifications of training needed No 0 studies 0 studies
Choice as an Antecedent Intervention Kern, Bambara, & Fogt (2002) Single-Subject Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individuals, Small groups (n=6-8), Classrooms No No specific qualifications of training needed No 0 studies 0 studies
Choice as an Antecedent Intervention Kern, Mantegna, Vorndran, Bailin, & Hilt (2001) Single-Subject Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individuals, Small groups (n=6-8), Classrooms No No specific qualifications of training needed No 0 studies 0 studies
Choice as an Antecedent Intervention Powell & Nelson (1997) Single-Subject Design Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individuals, Small groups (n=6-8), Classrooms No No specific qualifications of training needed No 0 studies 0 studies
Choice as an Antecedent Intervention Rispoli, Lang, Neely, Camargo, Hutchins, Davenport, et al. (2013) Single-Subject Design Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individuals, Small groups (n=6-8), Classrooms No No specific qualifications of training needed No 0 studies 0 studies
Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams Schmidt (s) Single-Subject Design Partially Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Partially Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Small groups (n=3-25), Classrooms Yes Paraprofessional 4-8 hours of training No 1 study 1 study
Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams Kamps, Conklin, & Wills (in press) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Partially Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Small groups (n=3-25), Classrooms Yes Paraprofessional 4-8 hours of training No 1 study 1 study
Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams Kamps, Wills, Heitzman-Powell, Szoke, Hobohm, & Culey (2011) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Partially Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Small groups (n=3-25), Classrooms Yes Paraprofessional 4-8 hours of training No 1 study 1 study
Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams Wills, Kamps, Fleming, Miller, & Hansen (draft paper) Group-Design Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable 0.93* Data Unavailable N/A No Externalizing Small groups (n=3-25), Classrooms Yes Paraprofessional 4-8 hours of training No 1 study 1 study
Coping Power Program CDC Group-Design Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Data Unavailableu Data Unavailableu N/A No Externalizing Small groups (n=4-6) No Paraprofessionals 12 hours of training Yes – Intervention 0 studies 0 studies
Coping Power Program CSAP Group-Design Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable 0.07 N/A No Externalizing Small groups (n=4-6) No Paraprofessionals 12 hours of training Yes – Intervention 0 studies 0 studies
Coping Power Program Field Trial Group-Design Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailableu -0.06*u N/A No Externalizing Small groups (n=4-6) No Paraprofessionals 12 hours of training Yes – Intervention 0 studies 0 studies
Coping Power Program NIDA Group-Design Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable Data Unavailableu N/A No Externalizing Small groups (n=4-6) No Paraprofessionals 12 hours of training Yes – Intervention 0 studies 0 studies
Coping Power Program Utrecht Group-Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable Data Unavailableu Data Unavailable N/A No Externalizing Small groups (n=4-6) No Paraprofessionals 12 hours of training Yes – Intervention 0 studies 0 studies
Daily Report Card Fabiano, Vujnovic, Pelham, Waschbusch, Massetti, Yu, et. al (2010) Group-Design Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable Data Unavailableu N/A No Externalizing Individual No Less than 1 hour of training required Yes – Study 7 studies 4 studies
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO) Didden, de Moor, & Bruyns (1997) Single-Subject Design Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individual, Small groups (n<6) No Paraprofessional, No training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO) Flood & Wilder (2004) Single-Subject Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individual, Small groups (n<6) No Paraprofessional, No training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO) Haring & Kennedy (1990) Single-Subject Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individual, Small groups (n<6) No Paraprofessional, No training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO) Kennedy & Haring (1993) Single-Subject Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individual, Small groups (n<6) No Paraprofessional, No training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO) Luiselli, Helfen, Colozzi, Donellon, & Pemberton (1978) Single-Subject Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individual, Small groups (n<6) No Paraprofessional, No training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO) Vance, Greshamn, & Dart (2012) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individual, Small groups (n<6) No Paraprofessional, No training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Good Behavior Game Rebok, Hawkins, Krener, Mayer, & Kellam (1996) Group-Design Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable Data Unavailable Data Unavailable N/A Yes Externalizing, Internalizing Classrooms No Professional Teachers, 24 hours of group-based training; 20-30 hours of on-site coaching No 4 studies 0 studies
Group Contingency Donaldson, Vollmer, Krous, Downs, & Berard (2011) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individual, Small groups, Classroom No Paraprofessional, No training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Group Contingency Kleinman & Saigh (2011) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individual, Small groups, Classroom No Paraprofessional, No training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Group Contingency Kowalewicz & Coffee (2014) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individual, Small groups, Classroom No Paraprofessional, No training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Group Contingency Lambert, Tingstrom, Sterling, Dufrene, & Lynne (2015) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individual, Small groups, Classroom No Paraprofessional, No training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Group Contingency Ling, Hawkins, & Weber (2011) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individual, Small groups, Classroom No Paraprofessional, No training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Group Contingency Maggin, Falolon, Sanetti, & Ruberto (2012) Single-Subject Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individual, Small groups, Classroom No Paraprofessional, No training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Group Contingency Rodriguez & Anderson (2013) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individual, Small groups, Classroom No Paraprofessional, No training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Group Contingency Wright & McCurdy (2011) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individual, Small groups, Classroom No Paraprofessional, No training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Incredible Years Child Dinosaur Program Webster-Stratton & Hammond (1997) Group-Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable Data Unavailable*u Data Unavailable N/A No Externalizing, Internalizing Small groups (n=6), Classrooms Yes Professionals 3 days of training Yes – Intervention 2 studies 2 studies
Incredible Years Child Dinosaur Program Webster-Stratton, Reid, & Hammond (2004) Group-Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable 0.30* Data Unavailable N/A No Externalizing, Internalizing Small groups (n=6), Classrooms Yes Professionals 3 days of training Yes – Intervention 2 studies 2 studies
Noncontingent Reinforcement Austin & Soeda (2008) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individuals No Paraprofessionals, Less than 1 hour of training No 0 studies 0 studies
Noncontingent Reinforcement Ingvarrson, Kahng, & Hausman (2008) Single-Subject Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individuals No Paraprofessionals, Less than 1 hour of training No 0 studies 0 studies
Noncontingent Reinforcement Jones, Drew, & Weber (2000) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Partially Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individuals No Paraprofessionals, Less than 1 hour of training No 0 studies 0 studies
Noncontingent Reinforcement Rasmussen & O’Neill (2006) Single-Subject Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individuals No Paraprofessionals, Less than 1 hour of training No 0 studies 0 studies
Noncontingent Reinforcement Tomlin & Reed (2012) Single-Subject Design Partially Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Partially Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individuals No Paraprofessionals, Less than 1 hour of training No 0 studies 0 studies
Noncontingent Reinforcement Van Camp, Lerman, Kelley, Contrucci, & Vorndran (2000) Single-Subject Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individuals No Paraprofessionals, Less than 1 hour of training No 0 studies 0 studies
Noncontingent Reinforcement Waller & Higbee (2010) Single-Subject Design Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individuals No Paraprofessionals, Less than 1 hour of training No 0 studies 0 studies
Opportunities to Respond Armendariz & Umbreit (1999) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Partially Convincing Evidence No Externalizing, Internalizing Small Groups, (n = 3-30) No Paraprofessionals, 0-1 hour of training No 1 study 0 studies
Opportunities to Respond Christle & Schuster (2003) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Partially Convincing Evidence No Externalizing, Internalizing Small Groups, (n = 3-30) No Paraprofessionals, 0-1 hour of training No 1 study 0 studies
Opportunities to Respond Davis & O'Neil (2004) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing, Internalizing Small Groups, (n = 3-30) No Paraprofessionals, 0-1 hour of training No 1 study 0 studies
Opportunities to Respond George (2010) Single-Subject Design Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Unconvincing Evidence No Externalizing, Internalizing Small Groups, (n = 3-30) No Paraprofessionals, 0-1 hour of training No 1 study 0 studies
Opportunities to Respond Lambert, Cartledge, Heward, & Lo (2006) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing, Internalizing Small Groups, (n = 3-30) No Paraprofessionals, 0-1 hour of training No 1 study 0 studies
Opportunities to Respond Maheady, Michielli-Pendl, Mallette, & Harper (2002) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing, Internalizing Small Groups, (n = 3-30) No Paraprofessionals, 0-1 hour of training No 1 study 0 studies
Opportunities to Respond Munro & Stephenson (2009) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing, Internalizing Small Groups, (n = 3-30) No Paraprofessionals, 0-1 hour of training No 1 study 0 studies
Opportunities to Respond Narayan, Heward, Garner, Courson, & Omness (1990) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Partially Convincing Evidence No Externalizing, Internalizing Small Groups, (n = 3-30) No Paraprofessionals, 0-1 hour of training No 1 study 0 studies
Self Management Amato-Zech, Hoff & Doepke (2006) Single-Subject Design Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individual No Paraprofessional, No training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Self Management Barry & Messer (2003) Single-Subject Design Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individual No Paraprofessional, No training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Self Management Harris, Friedlander, Saddler, Frizzelle, & Graham (2005) Single-Subject Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individual No Paraprofessional, No training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Self Management Levendoski & Cartledge (2000) Single-Subject Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individual No Paraprofessional, No training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Self Management Moore, Prebble, Robertson, Waetford, & Anderson (2011) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individual No Paraprofessional, No training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Self Management Rock & Thread (2007) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individual No Paraprofessional, No training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Self Management Wolfe, Heron & Goddard (2000) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Partially Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individual No Paraprofessional, No training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Self Management Wood, Murdock, & Cronin (2002) Single-Subject Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individual No Paraprofessional, No training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Skillstreaming Ciechalski & Schmidt (1995) Group-Design Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable Data Unavailable Data Unavailable*u N/A No Externalizing Individual, Small groups, Classroom No Paraprofessional, No training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Token Economy Broden, Hall, Dunlap, & Clark (1970) Single-Subject Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individuals, Small groups (n=2-30), Classrooms No Paraprofessionals No training required No 3 studies 13 studies
Token Economy Christensen, Young, & Marchant (2004) Single-Subject Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individuals, Small groups (n=2-30), Classrooms No Paraprofessionals No training required No 3 studies 13 studies
Token Economy O'Leary, Becker, Evans, & Saudargas (1969) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Partially Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individuals, Small groups (n=2-30), Classrooms No Paraprofessionals No training required No 3 studies 13 studies
Token Economy Salend & Gordon, (1987) Single-Subject Design Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individuals, Small groups (n=2-30), Classrooms No Paraprofessionals No training required No 3 studies 13 studies
Token Economy Shook, Labrie, Vallies, Mclaughlin, & Williams (1990) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individuals, Small groups (n=2-30), Classrooms No Paraprofessionals No training required No 3 studies 13 studies
Token Economy Smith, Young, West, Morgan, & Rhode (1988) Single-Subject Design Partially Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Partially Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individuals, Small groups (n=2-30), Classrooms No Paraprofessionals No training required No 3 studies 13 studies
Token Economy Sullivan & O'Leary (1990) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Partially Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individuals, Small groups (n=2-30), Classrooms No Paraprofessionals No training required No 3 studies 13 studies
Token Economy Walker, Hops, & Fiegenbaum (1976) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Partially Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individuals, Small groups (n=2-30), Classrooms No Paraprofessionals No training required No 3 studies 13 studies
Video Modeling Axelrod, Bellini, & Markoff (2014) Single-Subject Design Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Partially Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individual No Paraprofessional, No training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Video Modeling Clare, Jenson, Kehle & Bray (2000) Single-Subject Design Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individual No Paraprofessional, No training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Video Modeling Clees & Greene (2014) Single-Subject Design Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Partially Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individual No Paraprofessional, No training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Video Modeling Hartley, Bray & Kehle (1998) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individual No Paraprofessional, No training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Video Modeling Kern, Wacker, Mace, Falk, Dunlap, & Kromrey (1995) EXPERIMENT 1 Single-Subject Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individual No Paraprofessional, No training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Video Modeling Kern, Wacker, Mace, Falk, Dunlap, & Kromrey (1995) EXPERIMENT 2 Single-Subject Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individual No Paraprofessional, No training required No 0 studies 0 studies
Video Modeling Kern-Dunlap, Dunlap, Clarke, Childs, White & Stewart (1992) Single-Subject Design Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable N/A N/A Partially Convincing Evidence No Externalizing Individual No Paraprofessional, No training required No 0 studies 0 studies