Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales (SSIS)

Scale: Social Skills

 

Descriptive Information Usage Acquisition and Cost Program Specifications and Requirements Training

The Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS) Rating Scales consists of standardized, norm-referenced scales. It documents the perceived frequency and importance of behaviors influencing students' development of social competence and adaptive functioning in school, home, and community settings.

The SSIS Rating Scales measures seven domains of social skills functioning: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, and Self-Control; and five domains of competing problem behaviors: Externalizing, Bullying, Hyperactivity/Inattention, Internalizing, and Autism Spectrum. It provides a brief assessment of problem behaviors that may interfere with a student's ability to acquire or perform social skills, and it includes a broad measure of academic performance.

The SSIS Rating Scales assists professionals in screening and classifying students suspected of having significant social skills deficits and aids in the development of interventions for those students. It uses a multirater approach that may include ratings from teachers, parents, and the students themselves. 

SSIS is intended for use for students in kindergarten through twelfth grade. The program is intended for use with students in general education.

The tool provides information on student behavior in English.

Pearson

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Phone: 800-627-7271

Website: www.pearsonassessments.com

SSIS Rating Scales Hand-Scored Starter Sets

Hand-Scored Starter Sets - English -Includes manual, one pkg of each form: Teacher, Parent, Student ages 8-12, Student ages 13-18 - $261.00

Hand-Scored Starter Sets - English/Spanish - Includes manual, one pkg of each form: Teacher, Parent, Student ages 8-12, Student ages 13-18 - $342.40

Administration Materials

SSIS Rating Scales Manual - $109.30

SSIS Rating Scales - Hand-Scored English Forms - Teacher - (ages 3-18) - Pkg. of 25 - $45.30

SSIS Rating Scales - Hand-Scored English Forms - Parent - (ages 3-18) - Pkg. of 25 - $45.30

SSIS Rating Scales - Hand-Scored English Forms - Student - (ages 8-12) - Pkg. of 25 - $45.30

SSIS Rating Scales - Hand-Scored English Forms - Student - (ages 13-18) - Pkg. of 25 - $45.30

SSIS Rating Scales - Computer-Entry Forms-English - Teacher - (ages 3-18) - Pkg. of 25 - $56.35

SSIS Rating Scales - Computer-Entry Forms-English - Parent - (ages 3-18) - Pkg. of 25 - $56.35

SSIS Rating Scales - Computer-Entry Forms-English - Student - (ages 8-12) - Pkg. of 25 - $56.35

SSIS Rating Scales - Computer-Entry Forms-English - Student - (ages 13-18) - Pkg. of 25 - $56.35

SSIS Rating Scales ASSIST Software CD-ROM (Win/Mac) - $279.50

SSIS Rating Scales ASSIST Software for Scanning CD-ROM (Win) - $662.60

SSIS ASSIST Starter Set - Computer-Entry (English) - includes manual, one pkg of each form: Teacher, Parent, Student ages 8-18; Student ages 13-18 and ASSIST Software - $543.60

SSIS ASSIST Starter Set - Computer-Entry (English/Spanish) - includes manual, one pkg of each form: Teacher, Parent, Student ages 8-18, Student ages 13-18 and ASSIST Software - $645.00

SSIS ASSIST Starter Set - Scanning (English) - (includes manual, one pkg of each form: Teacher, Parent, Student ages 8-18, Student ages 13-18 and ASSIST Software - $875.00

SSIS ASSIST Starter Set - Scanning (English/Spanish) - (includes manual, one pkg of each form: Teacher, Parent, Student ages 8-18, Student ages 13-18 and ASSIST Software - $976.00

SSIS Rating Scales - Computer-Entry Forms-Spanish - Parent - Pkg. of 25 - $56.35

SSIS Rating Scales - Computer-Entry Forms-Spanish - Student - (ages 8-12) -Pkg. of 25 - $56.35

SSIS Rating Scales - Computer-Entry Forms-Spanish - Student - (ages 13-18) - Pkg. of 25 - $56.35

SSIS Rating Scales - Hand-Scored Spanish Forms - Parent - Pkg. of 25 - $45.30

SSIS Rating Scales - Hand-Scored Spanish Forms - Student - (ages 8-12) -Pkg. of 25 - $45.30

SSIS Rating Scales - Hand-Scored Spanish Forms - Student - (ages 13-18) - Pkg. of 25 - $45.30

SSIS Audio CD of Rating Forms (English) - $45.50

Audio CD of Rating Forms (Spanish)         - $45.50

If a parent or student has difficulty reading the form, he or she may listen to the questions on the audio version (CD), or the administrator may read the questions aloud. If necessary, the rater can respond orally and the administrator can fill out the form.

Teachers, parents, and students are raters on corresponding forms. Forms are scored by various school professionals, such as  psychologists, general education teachers, or special education teachers.

The recommended administration setting is a general education classroom, special education classroom, or a school office.

SSIS is designed for use with individual students. It uses a rating scale for the assessment format.

Administration time per student is 15-20 minutes.

Students cannot be rated concurrently.

Alternate forms are available.

Less than 30 minutes of training are required for the rater.

Minimum qualifications of the rater are at least 2 months of supervision/interaction, multiple times per week.

Training manuals and materials are field-tested and included in the cost of the intervention.

Ongoing technical support is available at 800-627-7271.

 

Sensitive to Student Change: Unconvincing Evidence

Case Study

Background of the Case

Andrew, an 8-year-old third-grade student, was referred for intervention because of aggressive and disruptive behavior in the classroom. According to his teacher, Andrew often bullied and became angry with others and frequently refused to comply with requests and instructions. His teacher noted that Andrew had few friends and that his peers seldom played with him during free periods.

In consultation with Andrew’s parents, it was discovered that Andrew also showed a pattern of noncompliant behavior at home, problems with his temper, and some aggressive interactions with children in their neighborhood. In addition to his social problems, Andrew was starting to have some difficulties with math and reading.

The behavior specialist at Andrew’s school recommended a comprehensive evaluation of Andrew’s behavior at home and in school. As part of the evaluation, Andrew’s teacher and Andrew’s mother were asked to complete an SSIS Ratings Scales form. Andrew was also invited to complete the SSIS Rating Scales Student Form (Ages 8–12) to determine to what extent he was aware of his own behavior and social interactions.

Levels of Performance Specified: Partially Convincing Evidence

Are levels of performance specified in your manual or published materials?

Yes.

Specify the levels of performance:

Behavior Levels

The behavior level represents a type of derived score that indicates the position of an individual’s subscale raw score in relation to the distribution of raw scores in a normative group. Behavior levels consist of three ordered categories with cutpoints based on SD units.

The Below Average level is assigned to all raw scores that fall more than 1 SD below the mean (i.e., standard score < 85). An individual with a Below Average level on a Social Skills subscale exhibits fewer than the average number of social skills for individuals in his or her norm group.

The Average level is assigned to all scores that fall within 1 SD of the mean (i.e., 85 ≤ standard score ≥ 115). An individual with an Average level on a Social Skills subscale exhibits about the same number of social skills as the average individual in his or her norm group.

The Above Average level is assigned to all scores that fall more than 1 SD above the mean (i.e., standard score > 115). An individual with an Above Average level on a Social Skills subscale exhibits more than the average number of social skills for individuals in his or her norm group. 

 

Describe how the levels of performance are used for progress monitoring:

Behavior levels are broad ranges and were chosen in part because the precision of measurement (i.e., reliability) of the scales does not support finer categories. Also, using broad categories helps differentiate the purpose of subscale scores from scale scores. Subscale scores are used to facilitate the analysis of strengths and weaknesses along with intervention planning. Scale scores, on the other hand, are used for placement and classification decisions, which require using a more precise measurement scale.

In the evaluation of behavior levels, look for patterns of strengths and weaknesses. If one or more Social Skills subscale behavior levels are either Below Average or Above Average, or at least one of the Problem Behaviors subscale behavior levels is Above Average, use the Model of Social Behavioral Strengths and Weaknesses for further analysis. If all subscales are in the Average range, further analysis is not necessary as the individual is demonstrating a typical level of social skills and problem behaviors.

The SSIS ASSIST software provides the SSIS Rating Scales validity index summary, score summary, narrative description of score results, intervention planning, and item rating summary effectively and efficiently. This program reports raw scores, standard scores, percentile ranks, and confidence intervals for scales; raw scores and behavior levels for subscales; and a comprehensive item-level analysis sorted by category (e.g., Social Skills Strength, Performance or Acquisition Deficit, and/or Competing Problem Behavior) and by subscale.

The SSIS Rating Scales ASSIST will be particularly helpful for sorting the items to identify target behaviors linked to possible interventions. Because the SSIS Rating Scales can be used to assess change, the SSIS Rating Scales ASSIST software program also generates a Progress Report. This report provides both visual and statistical analysis of changes in an individual’s level of social skills, problem behaviors, and academic competence over time and can accommodate up to five ratings with the same type of form (e.g., five Teacher Form ratings).

Figure 3.7 shows a sample Progress Report with three sets of Social Skills ratings. Standard scores with confidence intervals are presented in the chart. The actual scores are also presented in a table. The table includes the following administration information: (a) rating number, (b) date of rating, and (c) respondent’s name. It also presents important test score information including: (a) scale raw score, (b) standard score, (c) confidence interval, and (d) percentile rank for each administration. The last two columns of the table indicate whether the standard score changed significantly from the first administration (baseline) and whether each standard score is significantly greater than the standard score from the preceding administration. An asterisk indicates a change that is significant at the .05 level.

In measuring progress, it is important to allow enough time between administrations of the SSIS Rating Scales for behavioral changes to occur. When used in conjunction with the SSIS Intervention Guide social skills training program, it is recommended to allow at least four weeks between administrations. The SSIS Intervention Guide includes a progress monitoring tool that can be used more frequently; however, only the SSIS Rating Scales provides a statistical treatment of change.

What is the basis for specifying levels of performance?

Norm-referenced.

If norm-referenced, describe the normative profile:

Representation: National 

Date: March 2006

Number of States: 34 and Puerto Rico

Regions: Northeast, North Central, South, West

Size: 4,700

Gender: 50% Male, 50% Female

Representation of the Norm Sample, by Form, Age, Norm group, and Mother's Education Levela

  Grade 11 or less Grade 12 or GED 1-3 years of college 4 or more years of college  
  Sample  US Sample US Sample US Sample US  
Form, age, and norm group N % Pop.a (%) N % Pop.a (%) N % Pop.a (%) N % Pop.a (%) Total N
Teacher                          
3-5                          
Female 15 15   28 28   27 27   30 30   100
Male 15 15   28 28   28 28   29 29   100
Combined 30 15 14.7 56 28 27.7 55 27.5 28 59 29.5 29.5 200
5-12                          
Female 38 13.8   78 28.4   85 30.9   74 26.9   275
Male 38 13.8   77 28   86 31.3   74 26.9   275
Combined 76 13.8 13.8 155 28.2 27.8 171 31.1 30.2 148 26.9 28.1 550
13-18                          
Female 14 14   31 31   29 29   26 26   100
Male 12 12   30 30   32 32   26 26   100
Combined 26 13 12.8 61 30.5 30.3 61 30.5 30.6 52 26 26.4 200
                           
Parent                          
3-5                          
Female 26 13   57 28.5   57 28.5   60 30   200
Male 29 14.5   55 27.5   58 29   58 29   200
Combined 55 13.8 14.7 112 28 27.7 115 28.8 28 118 29.5 29.5 400
5-12                          
Female 132 13.2   283 28.3   303 30.3   282 28.2   1000
Male 129 12.9   284 28.4   304 30.4   283 28.3   1000
Combined 261 13.1 13.8 567 28.4 27.8 607 30.4 30.2 565 28.3 28.1 2000
13-18                          
Female 26 13   60 30   61 30.5   53 26.5   200
Male 25 12.5   61 30.5   61 30.5   53 26.5   200
Combined 51 12.8 12.8 121 30.3 30.3 122 30.5 30.6 106 26.5 26.4 400
                           
Student                          
8-12                          
Female 34 13.6   71 28.4   76 30.4   69 27.6   250
Male 34 13.6   71 28.4   76 30.4   69 27.6   250
Combined 68 13.6 13.6 142 28.4 28.8 152 30.4 30.4 138 27.6 27.2 500
13-18                          
Female 20 13.3   46 30.7   45 30   39 26   150
Male 18 12   47 31.3   46 30.7   39 26   150
Combined 38 12.7 12.8 93 31 30.3 91 30.3 30.6 78 26 26.4 300

 

Representation of the Norm Sample by Form, Age, Norm Group, and Race/Ethnicity

  African American Hispanic White Othera  
  Sample  US Sample US Sample US Sample US  
Form, age, and norm group N % Pop.a (%) N % Pop.a (%) N % Pop.a (%) N % Pop.a (%) Total N
Teacher                          
3-5                          
Female 16 16   22 22   55 55   7 7   100
Male 16 16   22 22   56 56   6 6   100
Combined 32 16 15.5 44 22 21.9 111 55.5 56.2 13 6.5 6.4 200
5-12                          
Female 43 15.6   55 20   160 58.2   17 6.2   275
Male 43 15.6   55 20   159 57.8   18 6.5   275
Combined 86 15.6 15.5 110 20 20 319 58 58.1 35 6.4 6.4 550
13-18                          
Female 14 14   16 16   63 63   7 7   100
Male 16 16   18 18   60 60   6 6   100
Combined 30 15 15.9 34 17 17.3 123 61.5 60.7 13 6.5 6.1 200
                           
Parent                          
3-5                          
Female 31 15.5   39 19.5   116 58   14 7   200
Male 31 15.5   45 22.5   111 55.5   13 6.5   200
Combined 62 15.5 15.5 84 21 21.9 227 56.8 56.2 27 6.8 6.4 400
5-12                          
Female 157 15.7   200 20   578 57.8   65 6.5   1000
Male 155 15.5   200 20   586 58.6   59 5.9   1000
Combined 312 15.6 15.5 400 20 20 1164 58.2 58.1 124 6.2 6.4 2000
13-18                          
Female 32 16   35 17.5   121 60.5   12 6   200
Male 32 16   35 17.5   121 60.5   12 6   200
Combined 64 16 15.9 70 17.5 17.3 242 60.5 60.7 24 6 6.1 400
                           
Student                          
8-12                          
Female 39 15.6   49 19.6   146 58.4   16 6.4   250
Male 39 15.6   49 19.6   146 58.4   16 6.4   250
Combined 78 15.6 15.5 98 19.6 19.4 292 58.4 58.6 32 6.4 6.4 500
13-18                          
Female 23 15.3   27 18   90 60   10 6.7   150
Male 21 14   27 18   92 61.3   10 6.7   150
Combined 44 14.7 15.9 54 18 17.3 182 60.7 60.7 20 6.7 6.1 300

Note. Row percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding.
aIncludes American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Pacific Islanders, and all other groups not classified as African American, Hispanic, or White.
bData from US Census Bureau (2006). Current Population Survey, March 2006

 

Representation of the Norm Sample, by Educational Classification/Diagnosis and Form, Ages 3-5

  Teacher Form Parent Form  
  Female Male  Combined Female Male Combined  
Educational classification/diagnosis N N N % N N N % US Pop.a (%)
Autism spectrum disorder 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0.8 0.2
Developmental delay 2 2 4 2 3 9 12 3 1.9
Emotional/behavioral disturbance 0 0 0 0 1 5 6 1.5 0.1
Intellectual disabilityb 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0.3 0.2
Specific learning disability 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0.3 0.1
Speech/language impairment 2 3 5 2.5 4 13 17 4.3 2.7
Otherc 0 3 3 1.5 1 7 8 2 0.4

aData from U.S. Department of Education (2004). Twenty-Sixth Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act
bReported as "Mental Retardation" by U.S. Department of Education.
cIncludes deafness/blindness, hearing impairments, multiple disabilities, orthopedic impairments, other health impairments, traumatic brain injury, and visual impairments.

 

Representation of the Norm Sample, by Educational Classifiation/Diagnosis and the Teacher and Parent Forms Ages 5-12, and the Student Form, Ages 8-12

  Ages 5-12   Ages 8-12  
  Teacher Form Parent Form   Student Form  
  Female Male  Combined Female Male Combined   Female Male Combined  
Educational classification/diagnosis N N N % N N N % US Pop.a (%) N N N % US Pop.(%)
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorderh 6 15 21 4.3 24 58 82 4.6 4.0c,d 10 10 20 4 4.0c,d
Autism spectrum disorder 0 3 3 0.5 3 6 9 0.5 0.3 0 2 2 0.4 0.3
Developmental delaya 1 1 2 0.6 1 5 6 0.5 0.5f 1 0 1 0.5 0.2g
Emotional/behavioral disturbance 0 2 2 0.4 4 8 12 0.6 0.6 0 3 3 0.6 0.8
Gifted/talentedb 18 16 34 6.9 63 63 126 7.1 6.3c,h 16 16 32 6.4 6.3c,h
Intellectual disabilityi 1 3 4 0.7 4 7 11 0.6 0.8 1 3 4 0.8 1
Specific learning disability 12 7 19 3.5 35 40 75 3.8 4 14 15 29 5.8 5.8
Speech/language impairment 8 12 20 3.6 27 46 73 3.7 3.5 5 9 14 2.8 2.8
Otheri 3 4 7 1.3 9 12 21 1.1 1.2 1 3 4 0.8 1.5

aData from U.S. Department of Education (2004). Twenty-Sixth Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act
bAges 6-12 for Teacher and Parent Forms. cAges 6-18.
dData from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1999). Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General.
eAges 5-9 for Teacher and Parent Formsl Ages 8-9 for Student Form. fAges 5-9. gAges 8-9
hData from U.S. Department of Education (2003). Digest of Education Statistics.
iReported as "Mental Retardation" by U.S. Department of Education.
jIncludes deafness/blindness, hearing impairments, multiple disabilities, orthopedic impairments, other health impairments, traumatic brain injury, and visual impairments.

 

Representation of the Norm Sample, by Educational Classification/Diagnosis and Form, Ages 13-18

  Teacher Form Parent Form Student Form  
  Female Male  Combined Female Male Combined Female Male Combined  
Educational classification/diagnosis N N N % N N N % N N N % US Pop.(%)
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorderh 4 6 10 5 7 9 16 4 6 7 13 4.3 4.0b,c
Autism spectrum disorder 0 1 1 0.5 0 3 3 0.8 0 1 1 0.3 0.1
Emotional/behavioral disturbance 0 2 2 1 0 2 2 0.5 0 4 4 1.3 1.1
Gifted/talented 6 8 14 7 14 11 25 6.3 11 9 20 6.7 6.3b,d
Intellectual disabilityb 1 3 4 2 0 3 3 0.8 1 5 6 2 1.2
Specific learning disability 2 4 6 3 8 16 24 6 8 12 20 6.7 6.4
Speech/language impairment 2 0 2 1 0 2 2 0.5 2 1 3 1 0.4
Otherf 2 3 5 2.5 0 1 1 0.3 1 0 1 0.3 1.3

aData from U.S. Department of Education (2004). Twenty-Sixth Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act
bAges 6-18.
cData from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1999). Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General.
dData from U.S. Department of Education (2003). Digest of Education Statistics.
eReported as "Mental Retardation" by U.S. Department of Education.
fIncludes deafness/blindness, hearing impairments, multiple disabilities, orthopedic impairments, other health impairments, traumatic brain injury, and visual impairments.

Data to Support Intervention Change: Data Unavailable

Data to Support Intervention Choice: Unconvincing Evidence

Are validated decision rules for what intervention(s) to select specified in your manual or published materials?  

Yes.

Specify the decision rules: 

The heuristic framework presented in the Model of Social Behavioral Strengths and Weaknesses which was originally developed for the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS™; Gresham & Elliott, 1990), provides a structure for classifying social skills deficits using results from the SSIS Rating Scales. It is through this framework that assessment results are linked to specific interventions with a history of effectiveness for teaching or increasing prosocial behaviors and for decreasing or eliminating problem behaviors.

Evidentiary basis: 

The effectiveness of social skills interventions is based on several interrelated factors that should be considered in the design, implementation, and evaluation processes. The intensity of the intervention must match the intensity and severity of the social skills deficits and competing problem behaviors.

One approach describes three levels of prevention outcomes: primary prevention, secondary prevention, and tertiary prevention. This conceptualization considers prevention as an outcome rather than simply a means to an end (Sprague & Walker, 2005).

This prevention model has subsequently been viewed in terms of types of interventions that differ in nature, comprehensiveness, and intensity, as well as the degree of the student’s unresponsiveness to a given level of intervention intensity (Gresham, 2004). The three levels that precede referral to special education are universal interventions, selected interventions, and targeted interventions.

Research has shown that universal interventions will be effective with approximately 80 to 85% of any given school population (Sugai, Horner, & Gresham, 2002; Walker, Ramsey, & Gresham, 2004). This figure may be lower or higher given the severity level of behavior challenges in a particular school or school district and is also dependent upon the quality of the universal intervention implemented.

Selected interventions are intended for students who do not respond or respond poorly to universal interventions. Approximately 10 to 15% of students will require selected interventions (Sugai et al., 2002). The most intense level of intervention focuses on students who are the most resistant to change and who exhibit chronic academic and/or social behavioral difficulties. It is estimated that these students constitute 1 to 5% of the school-aged population yet account for 40 to 50% of behavior disruptions in schools and use 50 to 60% of school building and classroom resources (Sugai et al., 2002; Walker et al., 2004). The goal of interventions for this group of students is to decrease the frequency and intensity of problem behaviors and to teach positive replacement behaviors that will successfully compete with problem behaviors (Maag, 2006; Sugai et al., 2002). Targeted interventions require a functional behavioral assessment to identify the conditions that reinforce the occurrence of problem behaviors (Gresham et al., 2001; Watson & Steege, 2003).

Gresham, F. M. (2004). Current status and future directions of school-based behavioral interventions. School Psychology Review, 33, 326–343.

Gresham, F. M., Watson, T. S., & Skinner, C. H. (2001). Functional behavioral assessment: Principles, procedures, and future directions. School Psychology Review, 30, 156–172.

Maag, J. W. (2006). Social skills training for students with emotional and behavioral disorders: A review of reviews. Behavioral Disorders, 32(1), 4–17.

Sprague, J. R., & Walker, H. M. (2005). Safe and healthy schools: Practical prevention strategies. New York: Guilford.

Sugai, G., Horner, R. H., & Gresham, F. M. (2002). Behaviorally effective school environments. In M. R. Shinn, H. M. Walker, & G. Stoner (Eds.), Interventions for academic and behavior problems II: Preventive and remedial approaches (pp. 315–350). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

Walker, H. M., Ramsey, E., & Gresham, F. M. (2004). Anti-social behavior in school: Evidence-based practices (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Watson, T. S., & Steege, M. W. (2003). Conducting school-based functional behavioral assessments: A practitioner’s guide. New York: Guilford.

Reliability: Partially Convincing Evidence

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Teacher Form

Age Range: 3-5, 5-12, 13-18

Internal Consistency Reliability: Coefficient Alpha for the Teacher Form Scales and Subscales, by Age and Norm Group

Teacher Form Ages 3-5   Ages 5-12   Ages 13-18
  Female Male Combined   Female Male Combined   Female Male Combined
Social Skills 0.96 0.97 0.97   0.96 0.97 0.97   0.97 0.97 0.97
Communication 0.84 0.85 0.85   0.85 0.85 0.86   0.86 0.85 0.86
Cooperation 0.89 0.9 0.9   0.9 0.92 0.91   0.89 0.9 0.9
Assertion 0.83 0.89 0.87   0.82 0.84 0.83   0.88 0.87 0.87
Responsibility 0.9 0.9 0.9   0.91 0.9 0.91   0.88 0.9 0.9
Empathy 0.86 0.88 0.88   0.89 0.93 0.92   0.93 0.88 0.91
Engagement 0.84 0.91 0.89   0.81 0.85 0.84   0.9 0.87 0.89
Self-Control 0.86 0.92 0.9   0.89 0.91 0.9   0.94 0.91 0.93
                       
Problem Behaviors 0.94 0.94 0.94   0.94 0.95 0.95   0.95 0.96 0.96
Externalizing 0.93 0.93 0.93   0.94 0.93 0.93   0.95 0.93 0.94
Bullying 0.74 0.76 0.75   0.74 0.79 0.78   0.73 0.75 0.75
Hyperactivity/Inattention 0.88 0.91 0.9   0.9 0.9 0.9   0.88 0.89 0.89
Internalizing 0.78 0.83 0.81   0.82 0.83 0.83   0.9 0.9 0.9
Autism Spectrum 0.84 0.89 0.88   0.87 0.89 0.88   0.87 0.87 0.87
                       
Academic Competence - - -   0.97 0.97 0.97   0.97 0.94 0.96
Median scale reliability 0.95 0.96 0.96   0.96 0.97 0.97   0.97 0.96 0.96
Median subscale reliability 0.85 0.9 0.89   0.88 0.9 0.89   0.89 0.89 0.9

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Parent Form

Age Range: 3-5, 5-12, 13-18

Internal Consistency Reliability: Coefficient Alpha for the Parent Form Scales and Subscales, by Age and Norm Group

Parent Form Ages 3-5   Ages 5-12   Ages 13-18
  Female Male Combined   Female Male Combined   Female Male Combined
Social Skills 0.95 0.97 0.96   0.95 0.95 0.95   0.95 0.96 0.96
Communication 0.72 0.78 0.76   0.74 0.74 0.74   0.76 0.83 0.8
Cooperation 0.83 0.87 0.86   0.82 0.84 0.83   0.84 0.85 0.85
Assertion 0.78 0.83 0.81   0.73 0.76 0.75   0.75 0.8 0.77
Responsibility 0.84 0.87 0.86   0.83 0.84 0.84   0.84 0.87 0.86
Empathy 0.84 0.89 0.88   0.85 0.86 0.86   0.87 0.88 0.87
Engagement 0.87 0.86 0.86   0.83 0.84 0.83   0.86 0.87 0.86
Self-Control 0.81 0.84 0.83   0.84 0.84 0.84   0.86 0.85 0.85
                       
Problem Behaviors 0.93 0.94 0.94   0.93 0.94 0.94   0.93 0.96 0.95
Externalizing 0.89 0.9 0.9   0.88 0.9 0.89   0.88 0.92 0.9
Bullying 0.82 0.82 0.82   0.75 0.77 0.76   0.73 0.85 0.81
Hyperactivity/Inattention 0.86 0.84 0.85   0.84 0.85 0.85   0.82 0.86 0.84
Internalizing 0.75 0.83 0.8   0.83 0.82 0.82   0.84 0.9 0.87
Autism Spectrum 0.8 0.87 0.85   0.82 0.83 0.83   0.81 0.88 0.85
                       
Median scale reliability 0.94 0.96 0.95   0.94 0.95 0.95   0.94 0.96 0.96
Median subscale reliability 0.83 0.85 0.85   0.83 0.84 0.83   0.84 0.87 0.85

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Student Form

Age Range: 3-7, 8-12, 13-18

Internal Consistency Reliability: Coefficient Alpha for the Student Form Scales and Subscales, by Age and Norm Group

Student Form Ages 3-7   Ages 8-12   Ages 13-18
  Female Male Combined   Female Male Combined   Female Male Combined
Social Skills -- -- --   0.94 0.95 0.94   0.95 0.95 0.95
Communication -- -- --   0.75 0.76 0.76   0.78 0.83 0.81
Cooperation -- -- --   0.76 0.8 0.79   0.84 0.82 0.83
Assertion -- -- --   0.72 0.77 0.75   0.75 0.75 0.75
Responsibility -- -- --   0.73 0.7 0.72   0.81 0.79 0.8
Empathy -- -- --   0.79 0.79 0.8   0.8 0.84 0.83
Engagement -- -- --   0.73 0.75 0.74   0.8 0.76 0.78
Self-Control -- -- --   0.78 0.81 0.79   0.84 0.82 0.83
  -- -- --                
Problem Behaviors -- -- --   0.9 0.92 0.91   0.94 0.95 0.95
Externalizing -- -- --   0.84 0.86 0.86   0.89 0.91 0.9
Bullying -- -- --   0.78 0.78 0.79   0.82 0.82 0.82
Hyperactivity/Inattention -- -- --   0.81 0.77 0.79   0.84 0.88 0.86
Internalizing -- -- --   0.81 0.83 0.82   0.87 0.88 0.88
  -- -- --                
Median scale reliability -- -- --   0.92 0.94 0.93   0.95 0.95 0.95
Median subscale reliability -- -- --   0.78 0.78 0.79   0.82 0.82 0.82

 

Demographic Characteristics of Test-Retest Reliability Study Samples, by Form

Characteristic Teacher Form Parent Form Student Form
N 144 115 127
       
Age      
Mean (years:months) 9:0 8:0 11:7
SD (months) 50.4 50.8 26.9
       
Sex      
Female 60 54 72
Male 84 61 55
       
Race/ethnicity      
African American 14 15 15
Hispanic 18 6 7
White 96 85 96
Othera 16 9 9
       
Mother'sb education      
Grade 11 or less 20 6 8
Grade 12 or GED 52 15 31
1-3 years of college 42 45 44
4 or more years of college 30 49 44
       
Region      
Northeast 18 47 16
North Central 45 43 48
South 53 13 45
West 28 12 18
       
Test interval (days)      
Range 2-87 27-87 43-84
Mean  42.6 60.6 65.7

aIncludes American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Pacific Islanders, and all other groups not classified as African American, Hispanic, or White.
bIf mother's or female guardian's education level was not reported, father's or male guardian's education level was used.

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Teacher Form

Age Range: 3-18

Test-Retest Reliability Coefficients for Scales and Subscales for the Teacher Form, Ages 3-18

    Rater 1 Rater 2 Average differencea Correlation
Scale and subscale N Mean SD Mean SD   Adj rb
Social Skills 144 100.6 16.2 99.7 16.1 -0.9 0.84 0.82
Communication 144 16.1 3.7 15.9 3.8 -0.2 0.76 0.76
Cooperation 144 13.3 3.7 13.4 4 0.1 0.86 0.85
Assertion 144 12.6 5 12.5 4.7 -0.1 0.74 0.68
Responsibility 144 14 3.6 13.5 3.8 -0.5 0.82 0.83
Empathy 144 12.3 4.1 11.8 3.8 -0.5 0.78 0.75
Engagement 144 14.5 4.2 14.6 4.3 0.1 0.83 0.8
Self-Control 144 13.7 5.5 13.9 5.6 0.2 0.86 0.81
                 
Problem Behaviors 144 97.9 13.8 98 14.4 0.1 0.81 0.83
Externalizing 144 4.3 5.8 4.2 6.3 -0.1 0.84 0.86
Bullying 144 1.2 2.2 1.1 2.1 -0.1 0.75 0.76
Hyperactivity/Inattention 144 3.9 4.1 3.8 4.5 -0.1 0.82 0.84
Internalizing 144 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.6 0 0.81 0.82
Autism Spectrum 144 8 6 8.2 6.3 0.2 0.85 0.85
                 
Academic Competencec 96 101.2 15.9 100.9 15.8 -0.3 0.93 0.92
Median scale reliability             0.84 0.83
Median subscale reliability             0.82 0.81

Note. Units are raw scores for subscales and standard scoers for scales.
aDifference equals mean from second administration minus mean from first administration
bAll reliability coefficients were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p. 58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample obtained on the first testing.
cAges 5-18

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Parent Form

Age Range: 3-18

Test-Retest Reliability Coefficients for Scales and Subscales for the Parent Form, Ages 3-18

    First administration Second administration Average differencea Correlation
Scale and subscale N Mean SD Mean SD   Adj rb
Social Skills 115 97.8 15.9 98.6 16.3 0.8 0.86 0.84
Communication 115 15.6 3.4 15.6 3.6 0 0.83 0.8
Cooperation 115 12.7 3 12.6 3.2 -0.1 0.8 0.8
Assertion 115 14.3 3.7 14.5 3.7 0.2 0.76 0.73
Responsibility 115 12.2 3.5 12.3 3.4 0.1 0.82 0.79
Empathy 115 12.6 3.6 12.9 3.6 0.3 0.78 0.75
Engagement 115 14.3 4.3 14.4 4.4 0.1 0.86 0.82
Self-Control 115 11.2 4 11.7 4.3 0.5 0.8 0.78
                 
Problem Behaviors 115 98.6 14.6 97.2 14.4 -1.4 0.87 0.87
Externalizing 115 7 5.4 6.4 5.6 -0.6 0.84 0.84
Bullying 115 1 1.7 0.9 1.9 -0.1 0.7 0.72
Hyperactivity/Inattention 115 5.1 3.8 4.5 3.7 -0.6 0.86 0.87
Internalizing 115 4.1 4 4 3.9 -0.1 0.84 0.85
Autism Spectrum 115 9.4 6.8 8.7 6.7 -0.7 0.92 0.88
                 
Median scale reliability             0.87 0.86
Median subscale reliability             0.83 0.8

Note. Units are raw scores for subscales and standard scoers for scales.
aDifference equals mean from second administration minus mean from first administration
bAll reliability coefficients were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p. 58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample obtained on the first testing.

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Student Form

Age Range: 8-18

Test-Retest Reliability Coefficients for Scales and Subscales for the Student Form, Ages 8-18

    First administration Second administration Average differencea Correlation
Scale and subscale N Mean SD Mean SD   Adj rb
Social Skills 127 99.2 14.2 100.6 14.4 1.4 0.8 0.81
Communication 127 13.7 2.8 13.8 2.9 0.1 0.65 0.69
Cooperation 127 15.9 3.6 16.4 3.4 0.5 0.71 0.72
Assertion 127 13.6 3.6 13.7 3.5 0.1 0.66 0.69
Responsibility 127 15.1 3.3 15.4 3.3 0.3 0.79 0.81
Empathy 127 13.4 3.4 13.6 3.2 0.2 0.76 0.77
Engagement 127 15 3.6 14.9 3.7 -0.1 0.58 0.59
Self-Control 127 10.8 3.6 11.3 3.8 0.5 0.68 0.7
                 
Problem Behaviors 127 99.8 13.5 98.8 14.7 -1 0.74 0.77
Externalizing 127 6.9 5.6 6.3 5.6 -0.6 0.78 0.81
Bullying 127 1.8 2.2 1.7 2.2 -0.1 0.64 0.71
Hyperactivity/Inattention 127 6.2 4.3 5.8 4.5 -0.4 0.76 0.77
Internalizing 127 8.7 5.6 8.3 6.1 -0.4 0.65 0.67
Autism Spectrum                
                 
Median scale reliability             0.77 0.79
Median subscale reliability             0.68 0.71

Note. Units are raw scores for subscales and standard scoers for scales.
aDifference equals mean from second administration minus mean from first administration
bAll reliability coefficients were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p. 58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample obtained on the first testing.

 

Demographic Characteristics of Interrater Reliability Study Samples, by Form

Characteristic Teacher Form Parent Form
N 54 110
     
Age    
Mean (years:months) 8:7 9:0
SD (months) 40.1 49.6
     
Sex    
Female 32 44
Male 22 66
     
Race/ethnicity    
African American 11 10
Hispanic 12 8
White 25 87
Othera 6 5
     
Mother'sb education    
Grade 11 or less 7 5
Grade 12 or GED 24 28
1-3 years of college 13 46
4 or more years of college 10 31
     
Region    
Northeast 1 32
North Central 13 34
South 20 24
West 20 20
     
Test interval (days)    
Range 0-76 0-86
Mean  63 57.7

aIncludes American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Pacific Islanders, and all other groups not classified as African American, Hispanic, or White.
bIf mother's or female guardian's education level was not reported, father's or male guardian's education level was used.

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Teacher Form

Age Range: 3-18

Interrater Reliability Coefficients for Scales and Subscales for the Teacher Form, Ages 3-18

    Rater 1 Rater 2 Average difference Correlation
Scale and subscale N Mean SD Mean SD   Adj rb
Social Skills 54 100.4 16.6 97.2 14.9 -3.2 0.7 0.68
Communication 54 15.6 4.1 14.7 3.9 -0.9 0.63 0.6
Cooperation 54 13.1 3.6 12.7 3.2 -0.4 0.6 0.62
Assertion 54 12.6 4.5 11.9 4.3 -0.7 0.38 0.36
Responsibility 54 13.6 3.7 13 3 -0.6 0.54 0.58
Empathy 54 12.2 3.6 11.6 3.4 -0.6 0.55 0.57
Engagement 54 14.4 4.2 13.8 3.9 -0.6 0.71 0.69
Self-Control 54 14.1 4.9 13.2 4 -0.9 0.62 0.62
                 
Problem Behaviors 54 98.2 13 103.7 14 5.5 0.57 0.61
Externalizing 54 4.9 5.3 6.4 6.1 1.5 0.53 0.56
Bullying 54 0.8 1.3 1.7 2.3 0.9 0.46 0.54
Hyperactivity/Inattention 54 4.4 4.2 5.7 4.2 1.3 0.56 0.58
Internalizing 54 3.7 3.4 4.4 3.6 0.7 0.5 0.48
Autism Spectrum 54 8.2 6 10.6 6.1 2.4 0.69 0.69
                 
Academic Competence 45 100.2 16.4 99.8 15.2 -0.4 0.62 0.6
Median scale reliability             0.62 0.61
Median subscale reliability             0.56 0.58

Note. Units are raw scores for subscales and standard scoers for scales.
aDifference equals mean from Rater 2 minus mean from Rater 1.
bAll reliability coefficients were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p. 58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample obtained on the first testing.
cAges 5-18

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Parent Form

Age Range: 3-18

Interrater Reliability Coefficients for Scales and Subscales for the Parent Form, Ages 3-18

    Rater 1 Rater 2 Average differencea Correlation
Scale and subscale N Mean SD Mean SD   Adj rb
Social Skills 110 99.4 15 98.5 14.6 -0.9 0.62 0.62
Communication 110 15.9 3 15.6 3.1 -0.3 0.62 0.61
Cooperation 110 13.1 3 12.8 3.3 -0.3 0.67 0.65
Assertion 110 14.7 3.5 14.7 2.9 0 0.35 0.37
Responsibility 110 12.8 3.3 12.6 3.2 -0.2 0.7 0.69
Empathy 110 13.2 3.2 12.8 3.2 -0.4 0.51 0.52
Engagement 110 14.9 3.7 14.8 3.1 -0.1 0.54 0.57
Self-Control 110 12 4.2 12.4 3.7 0.4 0.62 0.6
                 
Problem Behaviors 110 99.3 12.6 100.6 14.6 1.3 0.47 0.5
Externalizing 110 7 5.3 7 5.3 0 0.57 0.58
Bullying 110 1.1 1.6 1.2 1.9 0.1 0.37 0.38
Hyperactivity/Inattention 110 5 3.5 5.2 3.8 0.2 0.58 0.61
Internalizing 110 4.2 3.4 4.7 3.9 0.5 0.39 0.43
Autism Spectrum 110 8.4 4.8 9.3 5.4 0.9 0.58 0.61
                 
Median scale reliability             0.55 0.56
Median subscale reliability             0.58 0.59

Note. Units are raw scores for subscales and standard scoers for scales.
aDifference equals mean from Rater 2 minus mean from Rater 1.
bAll reliability coefficients were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p. 58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample obtained on the first testing.
 

Validity: Unconvincing Evidence

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Teacher Form, Parent Form, Student Form

Age Range: 3-5, 5-12, 13-18

Raw Score Means and Standard Deviations of Importance Ratings for Social Skills Scale and Subscales

  Teacher Form Parent Form Student Form
  Ages 3-5 Ages 5-12 Ages 13-18 Ages 3-5 Ages 5-12 Ages 13-18 Ages 13-18
Scale and subscale Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
Social Skills 1.1 0.3 1.2 0.2 1.2 0.3 1.3 0.3 1.3 0.3 1.3 0.3 1.2 0.3
Communication 1.1 0.3 1.1 0.3 1.2 0.4 1.3 0.3 1.3 0.3 1.2 0.3 1.2 0.4
Cooperation 1.3 0.3 1.5 0.4 1.5 0.4 1.4 0.3 1.3 0.4 1.3 0.4 1.2 0.4
Assertion 1 0.3 1.1 0.3 1.1 0.4 1.2 0.3 1.3 0.3 1.2 0.3 1.2 0.4
Responsibility 1.2 0.3 1.3 0.3 1.3 0.4 1.4 0.4 1.4 0.4 1.5 0.4 1.2 0.4
Empathy 1 0.4 1.1 0.3 1 0.5 1.3 0.4 1.3 0.4 1.3 0.4 1.2 0.4
Engagement 1.1 0.3 1.1 0.3 1.1 0.4 1.2 0.3 1.1 0.3 1.1 0.3 1.1 0.4
Self-Control 1.1 0.3 1.2 0.3 1.2 0.4 1.2 0.3 1.2 0.3 1.2 0.3 1.1 0.4
                             
N 83 218 84 729 2485 1073 617

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Teacher Form

Age Range: 3-5

Intercorrelations of Scales and Subscales for the Teacher Form, Ages 3-5

  Scale and subscale
Scale and subscale Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control
Social Skills -- 0.93 0.82 0.77 0.89 0.8 0.84 0.85
Communication 0.93 -- 0.74 0.65 0.85 0.7 0.76 0.78
Cooperation 0.82 0.74 -- 0.44 0.84 0.54 0.57 0.76
Assertion 0.77 0.65 0.44 -- 0.56 0.59 0.75 0.49
Responsibility 0.89 0.85 0.84 0.56 -- 0.63 0.62 0.82
Empathy 0.8 0.7 0.54 0.59 0.63 -- 0.67 0.62
Engagement 0.84 0.76 0.57 0.75 0.62 0.67 -- 0.56
Self-Control 0.85 0.78 0.76 0.49 0.82 0.62 0.56 --

N = 200. Note. Scores for scales are standard scores. Scores for subscales are raw scores.

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Teacher Form

Age Range: 5-12

Intercorrelations of Scales and Subscales for the Teacher Form, Ages 5-12

  Scale and subscale  
Scale and subscale Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control Problem Behaviors Externalizing Bullying Hyperactivity/Inattention Internalizing Autism Spectrum Academic Competence
Social Skills -- 0.91 0.82 0.58 0.89 0.87 79 0.84 -0.65 -0.64 -0.52 -0.64 -0.37 -0.84 0.5
Communication 0.91 -- 0.76 0.4 0.83 0.77 0.67 0.76 -0.63 -0.63 -0.52 -0.61 -0.33 -0.83 0.46
Cooperation 0.82 0.76 -- 0.24 0.87 0.63 0.49 0.71 -0.69 -0.72 -0.53 -0.77 -0.27 -0.68 0.57
Assertion 0.58 0.4 0.24 -- 0.31 0.48 0.6 0.27 -0.16 -0.07 -0.03 -0.12 -0.25 -0.42 0.32
Responsibility 0.89 0.83 0.87 0.31 -- 0.74 0.55 0.79 -0.7 -0.73 -0.6 -0.72 -0.28 -0.75 0.49
Empathy 0.87 0.77 0.63 0.48 0.74 -- 0.65 0.71 -0.49 -0.52 -0.47 -0.46 -0.22 -0.7 0.29
Engagement 0.79 0.67 0.49 0.6 0.55 0.65 -- 0.55 -0.42 -0.33 -0.27 -0.35 -0.4 -0.75 0.41
Self-Control 0.84 0.76 0.71 0.27 0.79 0.71 0.55 -- -0.65 -0.66 -0.54 -0.62 -0.36 -0.69 0.32
                               
Problem Behaviors -0.65 -0.63 -0.69 -0.16 -0.7 -0.49 -0.42 -0.65 -- 0.93 0.79 0.91 0.69 0.82 -0.41
Externalizing -0.64 -0.63 -0.72 -0.07 -0.73 -0.52 -0.33 -0.66 0.93 -- 0.88 0.89 0.44 0.71 -0.34
Bullying -0.52 -0.52 -0.53 -0.03 -0.6 -0.47 -0.27 -0.54 0.79 0.88 -- 0.68 0.33 0.59 -0.19
Hyperactivity/Inattention -0.64 -0.61 -0.77 -0.12 -0.72 -0.46 -0.35 -0.62 0.91 0.89 0.68 -- 0.49 0.72 -0.46
Internalizing -0.37 -0.33 -0.27 -0.25 -0.28 -0.22 -0.4 -0.36 0.69 0.44 0.33 0.49 -- 0.61 -0.27
Autism Spectrum -0.84 -0.83 -0.68 -0.42 -0.75 -0.7 -0.75 -0.69 0.82 0.71 0.59 0.72 0.61 -- -0.46
                               
Academic Competence 0.5 0.46 0.57 0.32 0.49 0.29 0.41 0.32 -0.41 -0.34 -0.19 -0.46 -0.27 -0.46 --

N = 550. Note. Scores for scales are standard scores. Scores for subscales are raw scores.

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Teacher Form

Age Range: 13-18

Intercorrelations of Scales and Subscales for the Teacher Form, Ages 13-18

Scale and subscale
Scale and subscale Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control
Social Skills -- 0.89 0.78 0.73 0.84 0.84 0.83 0.83
Communication 0.89 -- 0.75 0.53 0.82 0.66 0.74 0.68
Cooperation 0.78 0.75 -- 0.32 0.85 0.54 0.53 0.61
Assertion 0.73 0.53 0.32 -- 0.37 0.63 0.7 0.5
Responsibility 0.84 0.82 0.85 0.37 -- 0.62 0.59 0.67
Empathy 0.84 0.66 0.54 0.63 0.62 -- 0.61 0.74
Engagement 0.83 0.74 0.53 0.7 0.59 0.61 -- 0.53
Self-Control 0.83 0.68 0.61 0.5 0.67 0.74 0.53 --

= 200.
Note. Scores for scales are standard scores. Scores for subscales are raw scores.

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Parent Form

Age Range: 3-5

Intercorrelations of Scales and Subscales for the Parent Form, Ages 3-5

Scale and subscale
Scale and subscale Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control
Social Skills -- 0.86 0.83 0.81 0.87 0.84 0.79 0.82
Communication 0.86 -- 0.73 0.64 0.7 0.66 0.68 0.67
Cooperation 0.83 0.73 -- 0.56 0.8 0.61 0.52 0.72
Assertion 0.81 0.64 0.56 -- 0.63 0.71 0.64 0.53
Responsibility 0.87 0.7 0.8 0.63 -- 0.71 0.57 0.73
Empathy 0.84 0.66 0.61 0.71 0.71 -- 0.62 0.59
Engagement 0.79 0.68 0.52 0.64 0.57 0.62 -- 0.57
Self-Control 0.82 0.67 0.72 0.53 0.73 0.59 0.57 --

= 400.
Note. Scores for scales are standard scores. Scores for subscales are raw scores.

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Parent Form

Age Range: 5-12

Intercorrelations of Scales and Subscales for the Parent Form, Ages 5-12

Scale and subscale
Scale and subscale Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control
Social Skills -- 0.84 0.81 0.75 0.82 0.82 0.75 0.81
Communication 0.84 -- 0.69 0.55 0.66 0.63 0.58 0.63
Cooperation 0.81 0.69 -- 0.47 0.78 0.57 0.42 0.67
Assertion 0.75 0.55 0.47 -- 0.48 0.59 0.65 0.46
Responsibility 0.82 0.66 0.78 0.48 -- 0.62 0.44 0.67
Empathy 0.82 0.63 0.57 0.59 0.62 -- 0.6 0.6
Engagement 0.75 0.58 0.42 0.65 0.44 0.6 -- 0.48
Self-Control 0.81 0.63 0.67 0.46 0.67 0.6 0.48 --

= 2,000.
Note. Scores for scales are standard scores. Scores for subscales are raw scores.

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Parent Form

Age Range: 13-18

Intercorrelations of Scales and Subscales for the Parent Form, Ages 13-18

Scale and subscale
Scale and subscale Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control
Social Skills -- 0.85 0.82 0.74 0.82 0.84 0.81 0.83
Communication 0.85 -- 0.72 0.55 0.68 0.67 0.6 0.68
Cooperation 0.82 0.72 -- 0.45 0.82 0.63 0.49 0.66
Assertion 0.74 0.55 0.45 -- 0.45 0.57 0.71 0.47
Responsibility 0.82 0.68 0.82 0.45 -- 0.64 0.5 0.64
Empathy 0.84 0.67 0.63 0.57 0.64 -- 0.66 0.66
Engagement 0.81 0.6 0.49 0.71 0.5 0.66 -- 0.58
Self-Control 0.83 0.68 0.66 0.47 0.64 0.66 0.58 --

= 400.
Note. Scores for scales are standard scores. Scores for subscales are raw scores.

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Student Form

Age Range: 8-12

Intercorrelations of Scales and Subscales for the Student Form, Ages 8-12

Scale and subscale
Scale and subscale Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control
Social Skills -- 0.84 0.81 0.83 0.82 0.84 0.76 0.79
Communication 0.84 -- 0.66 0.65 0.69 0.67 0.6 0.58
Cooperation 0.81 0.66 -- 0.55 0.7 0.63 0.49 0.62
Assertion 0.83 0.65 0.55 -- 0.61 0.69 0.6 0.56
Responsibility 0.82 0.69 0.7 0.61 -- 0.61 0.51 0.6
Empathy 0.84 0.67 0.63 0.69 0.61 -- 0.58 0.62
Engagement 0.76 0.6 0.49 0.6 0.51 0.58 -- 0.51
Self-Control 0.79 0.58 0.62 0.56 0.6 0.62 0.51 --

= 500.
Note. Scores for scales are standard scores. Scores for subscales are raw scores.

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Student Form

Age Range: 13-18

Intercorrelations of Scales and Subscales for the Student Form, Ages 13-18

Scale and subscale
Scale and subscale Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control
Social Skills -- 0.85 0.84 0.82 0.88 0.81 0.75 0.75
Communication 0.85 -- 0.68 0.69 0.72 0.67 0.61 0.51
Cooperation 0.84 0.68 -- 0.6 0.79 0.59 0.48 0.66
Assertion 0.82 0.69 0.6 -- 0.66 0.62 0.6 0.5
Responsibility 0.88 0.72 0.79 0.66 -- 0.62 0.58 0.62
Empathy 0.81 0.67 0.59 0.62 0.62 -- 0.58 0.55
Engagement 0.75 0.61 0.48 0.6 0.58 0.58 -- 0.44
Self-Control 0.75 0.51 0.66 0.5 0.62 0.55 0.44 --

= 300.
Note. Scores for scales are standard scores. Scores for subscales are raw scores.

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Teacher Form

Age Range: 3-5, 5-12, 13-18

Item-Totale Correlations for Scales and Subscales for the Teacher Form, by Age

  Ages
Subscale and Item 3-5 5-12 13-18
Communication      
Says "please." 0.58 0.64 0.67
Reponds well when others start a conversation or activity. 0.67 0.67 0.58
Speaks in appropriate tone of voice. 0.6 0.61 0.59
Takes turns in conversations. 0.58 0.6 0.66
Says "thank you." 0.57 0.69 0.67
Makes eye contact when talking. 0.63 0.55 0.56
Uses gestures or body appropriately with others. 0.66 0.64 0.6
Cooperation      
Follows your directions. 0.8 0.82 0.77
Completes tasks without bothering others. 0.7 0.77 0.74
Participates appropriately in class. 0.62 0.73 0.78
Pays attention to your instructions. 0.81 0.78 0.72
Ignores classmates when they are distracting. 0.59 0.68 0.61
Follows classroom rules.  0.82 0.78 0.76
Assertion      
Asks for help from adults. 0.6 0.46 0.5
Questions rules that may be unfair. 0.59 0.55 0.63
Stands up for herself/himself when treated unfairly. 0.7 0.61 0.74
Says when there is a problem. 0.66 0.68 0.69
Expresses feelings when wronged. 0.72 0.68 0.74
Stands up for others who are treated unfairly. 0.64 0.59 0.68
Says nice things about herself/himself without bragging.  0.65 0.49 0.62
Responsibility      
Is well-behaved when unsupervised. 0.73 0.78 0.67
Takes responsibility for her/his own actions. 0.8 0.79 0.8
Acts responsibly when with others. 0.79 0.77 0.78
Takes care when using other people's things. 0.75 0.73 0.71
Respects the property of others. 0.76 0.77 0.71
Takes responsibility for part of a group activity.  0.61 0.68 0.67
Empathy      
Tries to comfort others. 0.67 0.76 0.74
Forgives others. 0.52 0.65 0.67
Feels bad when others are sad. 0.74 0.8 0.71
Shows kindness to others when they are upset. 0.79 0.82 0.8
Is nice to others when they are feeling bad. 0.73 0.76 0.81
Shows concern for others. 0.7 0.83 0.77
Engagement      
Makes friends easily. 0.78 0.62 0.69
Interacts well with other children. 0.62 0.54 0.61
Joins activities that have already started. 0.68 0.57 0.74
Invites others to join in activities. 0.71 0.7 0.74
Participates in games or group activities. 0.67 0.6 0.67
Starts conversations with peers. 0.8 0.6 0.64
Introduces herself/himself to others. 0.57 0.51 0.65
Self-Contol      
Stays calm when teased. 0.74 0.77 0.82
Takes criticism without getting upset. 0.72 0.66 0.74
Uses appropriate language when upset. 0.64 0.67 0.74
Resolves disagreements with you calmly. 0.68 0.69 0.72
Responds appropriately when pushed or hit. 0.72 0.75 0.82
Makes a compromise during a conflict. 0.64 0.64 0.71
Stays calm when disagreeing with others.  0.74 0.8 0.83

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Parent Form

Age Range: 3-5, 5-12, 13-18

Item-Total Correlations for Scales and Subscales for the Parent Form, by Age

  Ages
Subscale and Item 3-5 5-12 13-18
Communication      
Says "thank you." 0.44 0.5 0.58
Takes turns in conversations. 0.48 0.4 0.48
Speaks in appropriate tone of voice. 0.48 0.5 0.53
Uses gestures or body appropriately with others. 0.48 0.4 0.4
Says "please." 0.47 0.46 0.56
Reponds well when others start a conversation or activity. 0.55 0.5 0.58
Makes eye contact when talking. 0.5 0.43 0.56
Cooperation      
Follows household rules. 0.69 0.64 0.7
Pays attention to your instructions. 0.73 0.66 0.71
Works well with family members. 0.62 0.56 0.62
Follows your directions. 0.62 0.62 0.64
Completes tasks without bothering others. 0.55 0.58 0.59
Follows rules when playing games with others.  0.69 0.55 0.53
Assertion      
Expresses feelings when wronged. 0.51 0.51 0.56
Asks for help from adults. 0.43 0.43 0.43
Says when there is a problem. 0.6 0.46 0.52
Stands up for others who are treated unfairly. 0.61 0.47 0.47
Questions rules that may be unfair. 0.57 0.43 0.45
Says nice things about herself/himself without bragging.  0.52 0.43 0.47
Stands up for herself/himself when treated unfairly. 0.63 0.52 0.55
Responsibility      
Takes care when using other people's things. 0.74 0.65 0.68
Is well-behaved when unsupervised. 0.56 0.55 0.51
Respects the property of others. 0.68 0.63 0.68
Takes responsibility for her/his own actions. 0.65 0.69 0.76
Does what she/he promised. 0.6 0.51 0.58
Takes responsibility for her/his own mistakes.  0.64 0.67 0.71
Empathy      
Tries to understand how you feel. 0.64 0.61 0.58
Tries to make others feel better. 0.8 0.7 0.77
Forgives others. 0.56 0.54 0.56
Tries to understand how others feel. 0.64 0.65 0.7
Tries to comfort others. 0.7 0.68 0.7
Shows concern for others. 0.74 0.7 0.74
Engagement      
Joins activities that have already started. 0.59 0.57 0.6
Starts conversations with peers. 0.75 0.7 0.74
Makes friends easily. 0.67 0.6 0.66
Interacts well with other children. 0.63 0.5 0.57
Introduces herself/himself to others. 0.62 0.64 0.74
Invites others to join in activities. 0.63 0.57 0.55
Starts conversations with peers. 0.57 0.52 0.59
Self-Contol      
Stays calm when teased. 0.65 0.64 0.66
Takes criticism without getting upset. 0.52 0.62 0.63
Uses appropriate language when upset. 0.54 0.62 0.63
Resolves disagreements with you calmly. 0.57 0.55 0.64
Responds appropriately when pushed or hit. 0.59 0.57 0.59
Makes a compromise during a conflict. 0.56 0.49 0.49
Stays calm when disagreeing with others.  0.59 0.63 0.68

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Student Form

Age Range: 8-12, 13-18

Item-Total Correlations for Scales and Subscales for the Student Form, by Age

  Ages
Subscale and Item 8-12 13-18
Communication    
I say "please" when I ask for things. 0.4 0.61
I take turns when I talk with others.  0.55 0.56
I look at people when I talk to them. 0.48 0.56
I am polite when I speak to others. 0.53 0.59
I smile or wave at people when I see them. 0.45 0.49
I say "thank you" when someone helps me. 0.59 0.61
Cooperation    
I pay attention when others present their ideas. 0.51 0.58
I ignore others who act up in class. 0.37 0.42
I do what the teacher asks me to do. 0.55 0.61
I do my work without bothering others. 0.51 0.63
I follow school rules. 0.58 0.72
I pay attention when the teacher talks to the class. 0.63 0.67
I work well with my classmates.  0.52 0.48
Assertion    
I ask for information when I need it. 0.49 0.59
I stand up for others when they are not treated well. 0.45 0.25
I show others how I feel. 0.49 0.45
I let people know when there's a problem. 0.57 0.53
I say nice things about myself without bragging. 0.34 0.36
I tell others when I'm not treated well. 0.48 0.53
I ask for help when I need it. 0.47 0.58
Responsibility    
I'm careful when I use things that aren't mine. 0.4 0.54
I do my part in a group. 0.36 0.58
I am well-behaved. 0.39 0.65
I do the right thing without being told. 0.49 0.58
I do my homework on time. 0.39 0.56
I keep my promises. 0.5 0.48
I tell people when I have made a mistake  0.46 0.37
Empathy    
I try to forgive others when they say "sorry." 0.45 0.6
I feel bad when others are sad. 0.56 0.64
I try to make others feel better. 0.71 0.63
I help my friends when they are having a problem. 0.59 0.53
I try to think about how others feel. 0.49 0.55
I am nice to others when they are feeling bad. 0.55 0.65
Engagement    
I get along with other children/adolescents. 0.36 0.39
I make friends easily. 0.45 0.63
I ask others to do things with me. 0.56 0.34
I meet and greet new people on my own. 0.4 0.62
I play games with others. 0.52 0.45
I ask to join others when they are doing things I like. 0.48 0.55
I try to make new friends. 0.43 0.59
Self-Control    
I stay calm when I am teased. 0.55 0.57
I stay calm when people point out my mistakes. 0.5 0.6
I try to find a good way to end a disagreement. 0.45 0.48
I stay calm when dealing with problems. 0.61 0.63
I stay calm when others bother me. 0.63 0.66
I stay calm when I disagree with others.  0.54 0.65

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Teacher Form

Age Range: 3-18

Raw Score Means and Standard Deviations of the Norm Sample for the Teacher Form Social Skills and Subscales, by Age and Sex

    Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control
Age and sex N Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
3                                  
Female 31 96.8** 21.5 15.5* 3.8 12.9** 2.8 13.1* 4.4 13.1** 3.2 12.4* 3.7 15.4** 3.7 14.4* 3.9
Male 30 78.5 24.3 13.1 4.2 10.9 2.9 10.2 4.9 10.4 3.6 10.3 4.3 12.2 5.1 11.5 5.3
4                                  
Female 37 95.2 18.9 15 3.7 12.7 3.3 13.1 3.5 12.7 3.6 12.7 2.9 15.2 3.3 13.9 3.8
Male 36 90.5 23.2 14.3 3.6 12.6 3.6 12 4.4 12 4 12.1 3.4 14 4.1 13.4 5
5                                  
Female 63 104.2* 18.6 16.7* 2.8 14.2* 3 14.2 4.1 14.4* 2.9 13.8** 2.8 15.9 3.3 15.1 3.7
Male 61 96.4 24.2 15.5 3.8 12.9 3.9 13.6 4.1 13 3.6 11.9 3.7 15.3 4.1 14.2 4
6                                  
Female 38 92.4 24.3 15.4 4.3 12.5 4.1 11.3 3.6 12.7 4.1 12.7 4.1 4.2 4 13.6 4.4
Male 46 87.1 22.9 14.3 3.7 11.7 4 12.4 3.8 11.9 3.8 11.5 4.1 13.4 3.7 12 4.5
7                                  
Female 33 100.6* 18.3 16.5* 3.6 13.4 3.2 13.1 3.4 14.2* 2.9 13.9* 3 15.2* 3.3 14.3* 3.5
Male 37 85.7 24.8 14.4 4.1 12.2 4.5 11.4 4 11.9 4.2 10.4 4.1 13.1 3.8 12.3 4.6
8                                  
Female 36 94.2 20.1 15.6 3.2 12.5 3.8 12.4 3.7 13.2 3.6 12.6 3.5 14.1 3 13.8 4
Male 39 91.5 22.9 15.2 4 12.2 3.6 12.5 4.2 12.5 3.7 11.6 3.9 14.7 3.4 12.9 5
9                                  
Female 34 102.7** 14.2 17.1* 3.4 13.7* 3 12.3 4.4 15.0** 2.6 14.2** 2.6 14.9 3.3 15.6 3.4
Male 31 89 20.3 14.9 3.5 11.9 3.5 11.8 5.1 12.5 3.1 10.7 3.6 13.3 3.5 14.1 4.8
10                                  
Female 32 105.3* 19.9 17.8* 3.5 13.8 3.5 13.3 3.4 14.9* 3.8 13.5 3.9 15.7 3.2 16.3 3.8
Male 36 92.7 25.3 15.4 4 12.2 4 12.1 4.5 12.9 4.5 11.8 4.4 14.1 4.2 14.3 4.5
11                                  
Female 37 104.9** 13 17.4** 2.3 14.0* 2.8 12.9 3.9 15.1** 2.5 13.7 2.1 16.0** 2.8 15.7* 2.9
Male 30 91.6 19 15.4 3.2 12.1 3.3 12 3.5 12.4 3.1 12.3 3.6 13.9 3.5 13.4 4.1
12                                  
Female 34 100 22.9 16.8 3.8 14 4.2 12.2 4.8 14.5* 3.8 13 3.6 14.5 3.2 15 5.2
Male 29 91.6 21.8 15.1 3.7 12.5 3.1 11.9 4 12.5 3.8 11.3 4.6 14.6 3.2 13.8 4.6
13                                  
Female 26 96.2 28.1 16.1 4.4 13.9 3.8 12 4.3 14.3 4.2 12.2 4.2 13.4 5.1 14.3 6.3
Male 29 95.9 19.6 16.5 3 13.1 3.4 13.3 3.7 13.3 3.5 11 3 14.8 3.8 13.9 4.6
14                                  
Female 22 108.3 25.5 17.7 3.5 14.8" 3.7 13.8 5.8 15.3 3.6 13.8" 3.5 16.2 4.5 16.8 4.3
Male 16 92.8 20.7 15.6 3.7 11.8 3.3 12.8 3.7 13.4 3.1 11.3 2.8 13.9 4.1 14 4.7
15                                  
Female 15 101.5 17.2 17.5 2.6 14.5 2.5 12.5 3.7 14.6 2.4 12.1 4.2 15 3.3 15.3 3.2
Male 11 97.6 24.8 16 4.2 12.7 3.5 13.8 4.7 13.4 3.9 12.1 3.2 15.2 4.4 14.5 4.1
16                                  
Female 15 100.9 18.8 17 3.1 14.1 3.1 12.5 4.6 14.9 3 12.1 3.6 15.4 3.1 14.8 5
Male 16 94.3 21.4 16.2 3.3 13.7 2.3 12.2 5.3 13.4 2.9 10.6 4 14.6 4.4 13.7 5
17                                  
Female 15 98.7 26.5 16.4 3.6 15.1 2.9 11.2 5.7 14.6 3.1 11.9 5.3 16.5 3.6 13 6.8
Male 17 99.7 19.9 16.4 3 13.1 3.6 14.1 3.8 12.6 3.8 12.7 3.4 15.7 3.2 15.2 3.2
18                                  
Female 7 103.9 16.6 16.3 4.2 15.6 1.8 10.3 3.4 15.9 2.2 14.7 3.5 14 5.8 17.1 2
Male 11 94.9 23.5 15.7 3.7 12.8 3.5 12.4 4 13.2 3.3 11.2 3.9 15.1 3.7 14.6 4.2

Note. Asterisk indicates a statistically significant sex difference favoring the sex indicated (two-tailed t test). 
*p<.05. **p<.01. 

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Parent Form

Age Range: 3-18

Raw Score Means and Standard Deviations of the Norm Sample for the Parent Form Social Skills and Subscales, by Age and Sex

    Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control
Age and sex N Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
3                                  
Female 70 90.7** 19.1 15.4** 3 12.2** 3 14.7** 3.4 11.5** 3.3 12.4** 3.4 14.4 4 10.1 4.1
Male 56 78.1 27.3 13.9 4 10.7 3.6 12.2 5 9.2 4.3 10.2 4.4 12.9 4.7 9.1 4.6
4                                  
Female 99 98.2** 18.3 16.2** 3 12.8** 2.7 15.9** 3.5 12.2* 3.3 13.9** 3 15.7* 4 11.5** 3.4
Male 104 88.7 18.4 14.7 3.2 11.7 3.1 14.5 3.6 11.2 3.3 12.1 3.5 14.5 3.6 10.1 3.3
5                                  
Female 136 96.1 19 15.7 3.1 12.7 2.9 15.4 3.5 12.2 3 13.3 3.3 15.5 4 11.4 3.3
Male 150 96.4 17.5 15.9 2.8 12.7 2.8 15.5 3.4 12.1 3 13 3.3 15.9 3.2 11.5 3.6
6                                  
Female 112 99.7* 17.8 15.9 2.9 13.3 3.1 15.7* 3.1 13 2.9 13.9** 2.8 15.7 3.3 12.2* 3.7
Male 126 94.1 17.2 15.6 3 12.8 2.9 14.7 3.2 12.3 3 12.6 3.3 15.1 3.5 11.1 3.6
7                                  
Female 114 100.4 17.2 16.3 2.6 13.5 2.8 15.7 3 13.3 2.7 14 3 15.4 3.3 12.3 3.7
Male 121 97.3 19 15.7 3.1 12.9 3 15.4 3.3 12.6 3.2 13.2 3.4 15.7 3.4 11.8 3.9
8                                  
Female 132 102.4* 17.5 16.5 2.7 13.8 2.7 15.4 3.3 13.7 2.8 14.5** 3 15.8 3.6 12.8 4
Male 142 98 17.4 15.9 2.8 13.3 2.9 14.8 3.2 13.1 3 13 3.1 15.6 3.3 12.3 3.6
9                                  
Female 142 100.3 17.1 16.3 3 13.7* 2.4 15.4 3 13.5 3 14.0** 2.7 15.8 3.2 12.9* 3.7
Male 130 96 20.2 15.7 3.4 13 3.1 14.8 3.7 12.8 3.2 13 3.1 15 3.4 12 3.6
10                                  
Female 121 102.4** 16.2 16.6* 2.7 13.6* 2.7 15.5* 3.1 13.9** 3 14.1** 2.7 15.8 3.2 12.9* 3.7
Male 134 96 17.8 15.7 2.9 12.7 3 14.5 3.5 12.9 3.2 13 3.1 15 3.4 12 3.6
11                                  
Female 142 101.4 18.7 16.4 3.2 13.9* 2.7 15.4 2.9 13.9 3.1 13.8 3.3 15 3.5 13 4
Male 126 98.1 18.8 16.1 2.9 13.2 3 14.7 3.5 13.2 3.4 13.3 3.3 14.9 3.5 12.7 3.7
12                                  
Female 132 99.1 16.9 16 2.8 13.4 2.8 15.2** 3 13.7 2.9 13.6* 2.9 14.9 3.4 12.3 3.6
Male 111 95.9 19.5 15.6 3.3 13.2 2.9 14.1 3.2 13 3.4 12.6 3.4 14.5 3.7 12.9 3.5
13                                  
Female 49 101.3 18.2 16.2 2.9 13.4 3 15 2.5 14 2.9 14.3 3.1 15.3 3.6 13.1 4.3
Male 49 102.4 22 16.8 3.4 14 3.1 14.7 4 14 3.1 13.6 3.3 15.2 4.6 14 4
14                                  
Female 42 103.6 16.5 16.8 2.8 14.3 2.5 15.4 2.9 14.4 3.4 14.1 3 15.1 3 13.6 3.4
Male 39 97.9 17.5 16.3 2.8 13.3 2.6 14.6 3 13.4 3 12.9 3.2 14.6 3.6 12.7 3.8
15                                  
Female 42 103.9 18.3 16.8 2.8 14.5 2.6 15 3.6 15 2.7 13.8 3.5 15.2 4 13.5 3.7
Male 31 101 16.2 16.2 2.9 13.7 3 15.9 2.9 14.2 2.9 13 3.5 15.2 3.1 12.8 2.8
16                                  
Female 31 99.9 17.3 15.9 3 14 3.1 14.7 3 14.4 2.6 13.8 2.8 14.4 3.5 12.7 4.2
Male 36 98.1 19.2 15.9 3.6 13.7 2.8 14.6 3 13.6 3.4 12.6 3.1 14.3 3.7 13.6 4
17                                  
Female 25 112.0** 19.3 17.8** 2.9 15.3** 2.8 16.1* 3.8 15.8** 2.6 15.4** 2.8 16.1* 4.1 15.5** 3.5
Male 31 90.4 21.1 14.6 3.9 12.4 3.2 13.6 3.3 12.4 3.4 11.4 3.5 13.7 4.2 12.3 4
18                                  
Female 11 91.6 21 15.5 4 13.6 3 13.1 4.3 14.4 2.9 11.7 3.1 12.4 6 11.1 4.1
Male 14 111.3* 18.7 17.6 2.7 15.1 2.9 15.9 3.9 15.3 3.1 15.3* 3.3 17.0* 2.5 15.1* 4.2

Note. Asterisk indicates a statistically significant sex difference favoring the sex indicated (two-tailed test). 
*p<.05. **p<.01. 

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Student Form

Age Range: 8-18

Raw Score Means and Standard Deviations of the Norm Sample for the Student Form Social Skills and Subscales, by Age and Sex

    Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control
Age and sex N Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
8                                  
Female 44 111.7 14.3 15.5 2.4 18.1* 2.5 16.6 2.9 16.6 2.8 15.3 2 16.5 3 13.1 3.5
Male 45 105.1 22.1 14.5 3.2 16.8 3.9 15.6 4.1 15.8 3.9 14.3 3.3 16.1 3.4 12 4.3
9                                  
Female 50 103.2 19 14.4 3.1 17 3.6 14.7 3.3 16 3.6 14.5 3.4 15.7 3.1 11 3.9
Male 48 102.3 21.4 14.1 2.8 16.3 3.7 14.7 4.2 16 3.4 13.5 3.8 15.5 4.2 12.1 3.7
10                                  
Female 56 101.9 18.6 14.1 2.6 16.6 3.4 14.8 3.7 15.3 3.2 14.2** 3 15.3 3.8 11.6* 3.7
Male 48 95.3 19.1 13.4 2.8 15.4 3.5 13.5 3.9 14.8 2.8 12.4 3.5 15.6 3.6 10.2 3.8
11                                  
Female 52 96.4 20.1 13.5 3.2 16.2 3.2 13.8 4 15.4 3.2 13.1 3.6 14.4 3.9 10 4
Male 53 90.7 22.1 12.7 3.7 14.9 3.8 12.4 3.9 14.4 3.6 11.6 4.2 14.6 4.4 10 3.7
12                                  
Female 48 101.6** 18.3 14 2.9 16.5* 2.9 14.1* 3.8 15.6 3.3 14.2* 3.5 15.8 4.1 11.4 2.8
Male 56 91.7 19.2 12.9 2.9 14.9 3.6 12.2 3.7 14.7 3.2 12 2.9 14.8 3.6 10.3 3.8
13                                  
Female 42 93.5 19.2 12.9 3.3 14.8 3.7 13.1 3.5 14.7 3.3 13.6 3.5 14.3 3.8 10.1 3.2
Male 34 91.7 16.2 12.5 2.9 14.8 3.2 12.4 3.1 13.9 3 12.3 2.7 14.6 3.4 11.2 3.1
14                                  
Female 32 93.4 25.4 13.6 3.7 14.5 4.5 13.3 4.2 14.1 4.2 13.3 3.6 14.8 4.2 9.8 4.1
Male 29 98.8 21.1 14 3.4 15.8 4 14 4 15.4 3.8 13.1 3.9 15.1 3.8 11.5 4.1
15                                  
Female 19 92.3 18.1 14.1 2.8 14.2 3.9 13.7 3.3 14.1 4.8 13 2.6 14.3 2.6 8.9 4.2
Male 22 92.3 22.5 12.4 3.8 13.6 3.8 12.5 3.7 13.8 4.1 12.1 3.8 15 3.4 10.8 3.8
16                                  
Female 30 104.2* 18.5 15.1* 2.3 16.1* 3.4 15.2* 3.5 16 3 14.7** 2.6 15.1 3.7 12.0** 3.7
Male 25 91.9 16.9 13.4 3 14 3.9 12.8 3.3 14.6 2.3 12.4 3.7 15 3.1 9.5 3
17                                  
Female 23 99.9 17.7 14.4* 2.3 15.3 3.6 14 3.3 15.5 3.6 13.7 2.7 14.9 4 12.1 3.4
Male 27 90.2 20 12.2 3 13.8 3.7 12.9 3.7 13.9 3.7 12.2 3.2 14.7 3.4 10.6 3
18                                  
Female 4 95.5 22.7 14.5 2.7 14.8 2.9 12.5 5.5 14.5 3.1 12.8 3.6 14 5.1 12.5 3.7
Male 13 99 26.2 14.6 4 14.7 4.2 14.7 4.3 14.5 4.5 12.4 3.9 16.2 4.2 12 4.4

Note. Asterisk indicates a statistically significant sex difference favoring the sex indicated (two-tailed test). 
*p<.05. **p<.01.

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Teaher Form, Parent Form

Age Range: 3-5

Correlations of Scale and Subscale Scores Across the Teacher and Parent Forms

  Teacher Form scale and subscale
Parent form scale and subscale Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control
Social Skills 0.48 0.44 0.38 0.38 0.48 0.41 0.44 0.38
Communication 0.42 0.4 0.38 0.28 0.45 0.34 0.35 0.35
Cooperation 0.33 0.28 0.31 0.21 0.37 0.26 0.29 0.28
Assertion 0.42 0.38 0.27 0.4 0.37 0.38 0.44 0.28
Responsibility 0.45 0.4 0.42 0.31 0.48 0.39 0.37 0.4
Empathy 0.34 0.31 0.25 0.27 0.33 0.34 0.29 0.27
Engagement 0.46 0.45 0.29 0.44 0.39 0.39 0.49 0.32
Self-Control 0.4 0.36 0.36 0.28 0.42 0.33 0.34 0.33

= 288.
Note. Scores for scales are standard scores. Scores for subscales are raw scores. 

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Teaher Form, Parent Form

Age Range: 5-12

Correlations of Scale and Subscale Scores Across the Teacher and Parent Forms

  Teacher Form scale and subscale
Parent form scale and subscale Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control
Social Skills 0.34 0.33 0.25 0.23 0.29 0.3 0.3 0.26
Communication 0.3 0.3 0.21 0.21 0.26 0.25 0.27 0.24
Cooperation 0.33 0.32 0.34 0.14 0.35 0.26 0.21 0.31
Assertion 0.2 0.19 0.1 0.23 0.14 0.19 0.23 0.08
Responsibility 0.36 0.34 0.33 0.17 0.37 0.31 0.26 0.31
Empathy 0.29 0.29 0.17 0.21 0.22 0.28 0.27 0.22
Engagement 0.18 0.17 0.05 0.23 0.07 0.18 0.27 0.09
Self-Control 0.32 0.32 0.28 0.15 0.3 0.27 0.24 0.29

= 723.
Note. Scores for scales are standard scores. Scores for subscales are raw scores.

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Teaher Form, Parent Form

Age Range: 13-18

Correlations of Scale and Subscale Scores Across the Teacher and Parent Forms

  Teacher Form scale and subscale
Parent form scale and subscale Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control
Social Skills 0.32 0.3 0.28 0.12 0.34 0.19 0.32 0.27
Communication 0.33 0.3 0.26 0.13 0.33 0.23 0.34 0.29
Cooperation 0.29 0.27 0.33 0.1 0.36 0.13 0.26 0.23
Assertion 0.16 0.16 0.08 0.16 0.11 0.12 0.2 0.09
Responsibility 0.28 0.26 0.3 0.05 0.37 0.16 0.24 0.26
Empathy 0.22 0.21 0.18 0.07 0.24 0.18 0.2 0.2
Engagement 0.24 0.24 0.18 0.11 0.23 0.14 0.33 0.16
Self-Control 0.29 0.27 0.29 0.07 0.34 0.16 0.25 0.3

= 289.
Note. Scores for scales are standard scores. Scores for subscales are raw scores.

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Teaher Form, Student Form

Age Range: 8-12

Correlations of Scale and Subscale Scores Across the Teacher and Student Forms

  Teacher Form scale and subscale
Student form scale and subscale Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control
Social Skills 0.34 0.31 0.3 0.15 0.32 0.24 0.22 0.33
Communication 0.3 0.28 0.22 0.12 0.27 0.27 0.21 0.29
Cooperation 0.34 0.31 0.38 0.09 0.38 0.21 0.17 0.32
Assertion 0.18 0.17 0.11 0.16 0.12 0.12 0.13 0.16
Responsibility 0.37 0.35 0.37 0.19 0.37 0.24 0.24 0.31
Empathy 0.36 0.34 0.31 0.13 0.35 0.29 0.24 0.36
Engagement 0.15 0.12 0.09 0.08 0.09 0.1 0.17 0.19
Self-Control 0.27 0.23 0.26 0.07 0.29 0.19 0.14 0.3

= 280.
Note. Scores for scales are standard scores. Scores for subscales are raw scores. 

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Teaher Form, Student Form

Age Range: 13-18

Correlations of Scale and Subscale Scores Across the Teacher and Student Forms

  Teacher Form scale and subscale
Student form scale and subscale Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control
Social Skills 0.11 0.2 0.15 -0.04 0.14 0.02 0.21 0.02
Communication 0.12 0.23 0.17 -0.03 0.12 0.03 0.19 0.01
Cooperation 0.05 0.18 0.22 -0.14 0.2 -0.08 0.09 -0.03
Assertion 0.07 0.08 -0.01 0.09 0.01 0.05 0.18 -0.01
Responsibility 0.13 0.17 0.16 -0.02 0.18 0.07 0.19 0.04
Empathy 0.06 0.15 0.1 -0.08 0.05 0 0.14 0.03
Engagement 0.14 0.24 0.08 0.05 0.1 0.03 0.31 0.02
Self-Control 0.06 0.08 0.11 -0.07 0.13 0.03 0.07 0.04

= 189.
Note. Scores for scales are standard scores. Scores for subscales are raw scores.

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Parent Form, Student Form

Age Range: 8-12

Correlations of Scale and Subscale Scores Across the Parent and Student Forms

  Teacher Form scale and subscale
Student form scale and subscale Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control
Social Skills 0.25 0.25 0.18 0.14 0.2 0.23 0.2 0.22
Communication 0.19 0.22 0.14 0.08 0.15 0.17 0.15 0.16
Cooperation 0.18 0.2 0.16 0.05 0.19 0.15 0.09 0.15
Assertion 0.19 0.18 0.1 0.16 0.13 0.19 0.18 0.13
Responsibility 0.26 0.25 0.25 0.13 0.27 0.22 0.15 0.23
Empathy 0.21 0.21 0.13 0.11 0.17 0.23 0.18 0.17
Engagement 0.2 0.16 0.1 0.15 0.11 0.17 0.25 0.17
Self-Control 0.22 0.23 0.17 0.1 0.16 0.2 0.14 0.22

= 917.
Note. Scores for scales are standard scores. Scores for subscales are raw scores.

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Parent Form, Student Form

Age Range: 13-18

Correlations of Scale and Subscale Scores Across the Parent and Student Forms

  Teacher Form scale and subscale
Student form scale and subscale Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control
Social Skills 0.35 0.29 0.3 0.22 0.25 0.33 0.3 0.26
Communication 0.29 0.25 0.24 0.19 0.19 0.31 0.26 0.21
Cooperation 0.29 0.25 0.32 0.14 0.28 0.25 0.19 0.22
Assertion 0.25 0.18 0.19 0.3 0.13 0.23 0.25 0.15
Responsibility 0.29 0.28 0.3 0.15 0.26 0.26 0.2 0.23
Empathy 0.26 0.22 0.21 0.14 0.19 0.3 0.23 0.2
Engagement 0.29 0.2 0.19 0.23 0.15 0.26 0.36 0.2
Self-Control 0.29 0.28 0.24 0.13 0.23 0.27 0.19 0.28

= 490.
Note. Scores for scales are standard scores. Scores for subscales are raw scores.

 

Demographic Characteristics of Samples Used for Correlations With the SSRS

  SSRS
  Teacher Parent Student
Characteristic Preschool Elementary Secondary Preschool Elementary Secondary Elementary Secondary
N 98 146 75 118 126 114 139 85
                 
Age                
Mean (years:months) 4:5 9:2 14:7 4:1 8:7 14:9 10:5 14:11
SD (months) 8 25 16.2 8 25 18.1 15.4 20.8
                 
Sex                
Female 49 79 41 59 52 64 69 44
Male 49 67 34 59 74 50 70 41
                 
Race/ethnicity                
African American 3 33 9 6 6 7 14 8
Hispanic 11 27 6 4 3 9 17 4
White 76 73 52 102 112 97 100 66
Othera 8 13 8 6 5 1 8 7
                 
Mother'seducation                
Grade 11 or less 5 16 4 4 4 2 11 4
Grade 12 or GED 11 52 23 18 34 29 46 16
1-3 years of college 29 50 26 41 43 41 46 35
4 or more years of college 53 28 22 55 45 42 36 30
                 
Region                
Northeast 7 11 9 11 45 30 9 21
North Central 64 28 19 46 41 38 54 36
South 27 66 17 47 34 26 57 6
West 0 41 30 14 6 20 19 22
                 
Test interval (days)                
Range 0-64 30-72 0-89 23-87 32-90 29-88 56-89 26-86
Mean  17 53.4 29.2 61.4 60.2 63.1 68 60.7

Note. SSRS = Social Skills Rating System.
aIncludes American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Pacific Islanders, and all other groups not classified as African American, Hispanic, or White.
bIf mother's or female guardian's education level was not reported, father's or male guardian's education level was used. 

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Teacher Form

Age Range: 3-5

Correlations of the SSIS Teacher Form Scale and Subscale Scores With the SSRS Teacher Preschool Form Scale and Subscale Scores, Ages 3–5

  SSIS Teacher Form    
SSRS Teacher Preschool Form Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control SSRS
  r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra Mean SD
Social Skills 0.79 0.79 0.71 0.73 0.62 0.63 0.64 0.62 0.67 0.69 0.62 0.6 0.74 0.75 0.69 0.71 104.9 15.6
Cooperation 0.7 0.7 0.64 0.66 0.66 0.67 0.49 0.47 0.62 0.64 0.5 0.48 0.73 0.74 0.58 0.6 15 3.7
Assertion 0.79 0.79 0.74 0.76 0.57 0.58 0.71 0.69 0.66 0.68 0.63 0.61 0.79 0.8 0.58 0.6 13.2 4.6
Self-Control 0.78 0.78 0.71 0.73 0.66 0.67 0.56 0.54 0.65 0.67 0.65 0.63 0.6 0.61 0.8 0.81 14.4 4.5
                                     
SSIS Mean 100.9 15.5 13 13.8 13 12.5 14.8 14.3    
SSIS SD 15.1 3.5 3.2 4.5 3.4 3.7 4 4.2    
N = 98.
Note. Correlations are based on scale standard scores and subscale raw scores for both SSIS and SSRS.
aAll correlations were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p.58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample.
 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Teacher Form

Age Range: 5-12

Correlations of the SSIS Teacher Form Scale and Subscale Scores With the SSRS Teacher Elementary Form Scale and Subscale Scores, Ages 5-12

  SSIS Teacher Form    
SSRS Teacher Preschool Form Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control SSRS
  r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra Mean SD
Social Skills 0.74 0.75 0.65 0.66 0.61 0.64 0.54 0.53 0.64 0.66 0.56 0.58 0.69 0.69 0.54 0.6 104 15.4
Cooperation 0.58 0.59 0.55 0.56 0.69 0.72 0.32 0.31 0.61 0.63 0.39 0.41 0.44 0.44 0.41 0.43 15.5 4.4
Assertion 0.62 0.63 0.5 0.51 0.37 0.4 0.68 0.67 0.44 0.46 0.53 0.55 0.68 0.68 0.35 0.37 13.4 4.4
Self-Control 0.71 0.72 0.64 0.65 0.56 0.59 0.32 0.31 0.67 0.69 0.57 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.72 0.74 15.5 3.9
                                     
SSIS Mean 102.7 16.3 13.1 12.9 13.8 13 14.6 14.9    
SSIS SD 14.5 3.6 3.4 4.2 3.5 3.6 3.6 4.1    
N = 146.
Note. Correlations are based on scale standard scores and subscale raw scores for both SSIS and SSRS.
aAll correlations were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p.58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample.
 
 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Teacher Form

Age Range: 13-18

Correlations of the SSIS Teacher Form Scale and Subscale Scores With the SSRS Teacher Secondary Form Scale and Subscale Scores, Ages 13-18

  SSIS Teacher Form    
SSRS Teacher Secondary Form Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control SSRS
  r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra Mean SD
Social Skills 0.59 0.62 0.52 0.51 0.33 0.32 0.47 0.5 0.41 0.39 0.46 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.43 0.5 106.5 14.8
Cooperation 0.52 0.55 0.47 0.46 0.65 0.64 0.05 0.05 0.66 0.64 0.37 0.41 0.28 0.28 0.49 0.56 16.7 4
Assertion 0.41 0.44 0.36 0.35 -0.03 -0.03 0.65 0.68 0.07 0.07 0.31 0.34 0.65 0.65 0.15 0.18 13.7 4.9
Self-Control 0.61 0.64 0.55 0.54 0.39 0.38 0.24 0.26 0.52 0.5 0.56 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.63 0.7 16.1 3.5
                                     
SSIS Mean 99.3 16.1 13.4 12.6 13.9 12.4 14.4 14.7    
SSIS SD 13.9 3.6 3.4 4.2 3.6 3.4 4.1 4    
N = 75.
Note. Correlations are based on scale standard scores and subscale raw scores for both SSIS and SSRS.
aAll correlations were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p.58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample. 
 
 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Parent Form

Age Range: 3-5

Correlations of the SSIS Parent Form Scale and Subscale Scores With the SSRS Parent Preschool Form Scale and Subscale Scores, Ages 3-5

  SSIS Teacher Form    
SSRS Teacher Preschool Form Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control SSRS
  r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra Mean SD
Social Skills 0.7 0.75 0.58 0.62 0.65 0.69 0.51 0.57 0.62 0.67 0.51 0.53 0.49 0.54 0.6 0.63 101.4 16
Cooperation 0.65 0.7 0.56 0.6 0.66 0.7 0.49 0.55 0.62 0.67 0.53 0.55 0.35 0.39 0.5 0.53 12.8 3.4
Assertion 0.48 0.53 0.39 0.42 0.33 0.36 0.4 0.46 0.32 0.36 0.37 0.39 0.57 0.62 0.32 0.34 15 3.2
Responsibility 0.59 0.64 0.43 0.46 0.51 0.55 0.51 0.57 0.52 0.57 0.47 0.49 0.4 0.45 0.51 0.54 10.9 3.6
Self-Control 0.67 0.72 0.6 0.64 0.72 0.75 0.34 0.39 0.67 0.71 0.46 0.48 0.32 0.36 0.69 0.72 13.5 3.6
                                     
SSIS Mean 99.1 15.1 11.8 14.7 11.2 12.4 14.7 10.5    
SSIS SD 13 3 2.8 3.3 3.1 3.4 3.5 3.5    
N = 118.
Note. Correlations are based on scale standard scores and subscale raw scores for both SSIS and SSRS.
aAll correlations were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p.58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample. 
 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Parent Form

Age Range: 5-12

Correlations of the SSIS Parent Form Scale and Subscale Scores With the SSRS Parent Elementary Form Scale and Subscale Scores, Ages 5-12

  SSIS Teacher Form    
SSRS Teacher Preschool Form Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control SSRS
  r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra Mean SD
Social Skills 0.73 0.73 0.61 0.62 0.56 0.59 0.55 0.56 0.58 0.59 0.58 0.59 0.6 0.61 0.69 0.69 103.1 18.9
Cooperation 0.57 0.57 0.46 0.47 0.48 0.51 0.39 0.4 0.45 0.46 0.53 0.54 0.39 0.4 0.58 0.58 12.1 3.5
Assertion 0.6 0.6 0.46 0.47 0.38 0.4 0.54 0.55 0.41 0.42 0.5 0.51 0.61 0.62 0.5 0.5 16.2 3.4
Responsibility 0.64 0.64 0.52 0.53 0.47 0.5 0.58 0.59 0.47 0.48 0.53 0.54 0.55 0.56 0.53 0.53 13.8 3.6
Self-Control 0.69 0.69 0.63 0.64 0.63 0.66 0.41 0.42 0.64 0.65 0.45 0.46 0.44 0.45 0.76 0.76 12.8 4.1
                                     
SSIS Mean 97.4 15.3 12.5 15 12.2 13.2 15.3 11.6    
SSIS SD 15 2.9 2.7 3.2 3 3.1 3.4 3.8    

N = 126.
Note. Correlations are based on scale standard scores and subscale raw scores for both SSIS and SSRS.
aAll correlations were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p.58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample. 

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Parent Form

Age Range: 13-18

Correlations of the SSIS Parent Form Scale and Subscale Scores With the SSRS Parent Secondary Form Scale and Subscale Scores, Ages 13-18

  SSIS Parent Form    
SSRS Parent Secondary Form Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control SSRS
  r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra Mean SD
Social Skills 0.66 0.69 0.53 0.54 0.51 0.52 0.42 0.43 0.52 0.56 0.58 0.57 0.5 0.53 0.66 0.69 170.3 15.2
Cooperation 0.52 0.55 0.37 0.38 0.57 0.58 0.23 0.24 0.53 0.57 0.48 0.47 0.26 0.28 0.51 0.54 12.7 3.7
Assertion 0.47 0.5 0.36 0.37 0.17 0.18 0.48 0.49 0.22 0.24 0.33 0.32 0.68 0.71 0.38 0.41 15.5 3.5
Responsibility 0.59 0.62 0.52 0.53 0.49 0.5 0.34 0.35 0.49 0.53 0.58 0.57 0.34 0.37 0.55 0.58 17.7 2.2
Self-Control 0.52 0.55 0.45 0.46 0.46 0.47 0.2 0.21 0.47 0.51 0.52 0.51 0.24 0.26 0.61 0.64 14.6 3.6
                                     
SSIS Mean 100.5 16.8 14.2 14.6 14.5 13.5 14.9 13.4    
SSIS SD 14 3.1 2.8 3.2 2.8 3.4 3.5 3.6    

N = 114.
Note. Correlations are based on scale standard scores and subscale raw scores for both SSIS and SSRS.
aAll correlations were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p.58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample. 

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Student Form

Age Range: 8-12

Correlations of the SSIS Student Form Scale and Subscale Scores With the SSRS Stduent Elementary Form Scale and Subscale Scores, Ages 8-12

  SSIS Student Form    
SSRS Student Elementary Form Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control SSRS
  r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra Mean SD
Social Skills 0.57 0.64 0.42 0.44 0.4 0.43 0.41 0.46 0.56 0.62 0.46 0.49 0.34 0.37 0.48 0.53 107.1 15.5
Cooperation 0.46 0.52 0.28 0.3 0.43 0.46 0.32 0.36 0.5 0.56 0.37 0.4 0.15 0.16 0.42 0.47 15.5 2.7
Assertion 0.45 0.51 0.3 0.32 0.29 0.31 0.29 0.33 0.47 0.53 0.33 0.36 0.35 0.38 0.38 0.43 14.1 2.8
Empathy 0.57 0.64 0.49 0.52 0.37 0.4 0.47 0.52 0.51 0.57 0.55 0.58 0.34 0.37 0.33 0.37 16 3.2
Self-Control 0.56 0.63 0.42 0.44 0.41 0.44 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.56 0.46 0.49 0.28 0.3 0.51 0.56 12.4 3.6
                                     
SSIS Mean 101.5 14 16.6 14.5 16 13.7 15.4 11.4    
SSIS SD 12.6 2.8 3.2 3.5 2.8 3.2 3.4 3.4    

N = 139.
Note. Correlations are based on scale standard scores and subscale raw scores for both SSIS and SSRS.
aAll correlations were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p.58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample. 

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Student Form

Age Range: 13-18

Correlations of the SSIS Student Form Scale and Subscale Scores With the SSRS Stduent Secondary Form Scale and Subscale Scores, Ages 13-18

  SSIS Student Form    
SSRS Student Secondary Form Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control SSRS
  r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra Mean SD
Social Skills 0.35 0.36 0.27 0.29 0.31 0.38 0.31 0.3 0.27 0.32 0.09 0.08 0.43 0.42 0.31 0.33 109.8 14.1
Cooperation 0.27 0.28 0.16 0.17 0.35 0.43 0.28 0.27 0.28 0.33 0.11 0.1 0.19 0.19 0.21 0.22 15.8 2.8
Assertion 0.22 0.23 0.19 0.2 0.09 0.11 0.26 0.25 0.1 0.12 0 0 0.46 0.45 0.11 0.12 13.3 3.4
Empathy 0.5 0.52 0.51 0.53 0.29 0.36 0.4 0.38 0.35 0.41 0.45 0.43 0.56 0.55 0.26 0.27 15.3 2.9
Self-Control 0.23 0.24 0.14 0.15 0.36 0.44 0.13 0.12 0.24 0.28 0.04 0.04 0.12 0.12 0.38 0.4 12.5 2.8
                                     
SSIS Mean 102.5 13.7 15.3 13.6 15.3 13.5 15.5 11.3    
SSIS SD 14.3 3 3 3.9 3 3.5 3.7 3.4    

N = 85.
Note. Correlations are based on scale standard scores and subscale raw scores for both SSIS and SSRS.
aAll correlations were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p.58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample. 

 

Demographic Characteristics of Samples Used for Correlations With the BASC-2

  BASC-2
  TRS PRS SRP
Characteristic Preschool Child Adolescent Preschool Child Adolescent Child Adolescent
N 16 41 16 16 43 20 34 19
                 
Age                
Mean (years:months) 4:4 9:5 15:3 4:1 8:9 15:0 10:0 16:1
SD (months) 8.8 19.9 19.8 8.7 17.8 13.8 12.5 19.5
                 
Sex                
Female 7 21 8 9 26 11 17 10
Male 9 20 8 7 17 9 17 9
                 
Race/ethnicity                
African American 0 8 0 2 4 3 9 2
Hispanic 2 4 2 1 1 2 3 2
White 13 24 11 11 34 14 15 11
Othera 1 5 3 2 4 1 7 4
                 
Mother'sb education                
Grade 11 or less 0 4 2 1 2 2 1 1
Grade 12 or GED 7 14 6 3 7 4 14 6
1-3 years of college 4 16 7 7 16 8 10 6
4 or more years of college 5 7 1 5 18 6 9 6
                 
Region                
Northeast 2 5 0 4 9 5 11 4
North Central 3 20 10 6 13 5 10 6
South 7 15 1 2 13 6 8 3
West 4 1 5 4 8 4 5 6
                 
Test interval (days)                
Range 23-71 30-63 19-87 23-90 29-84 40-81 27-88 46-79
Mean  41.4 50 52.2 70.9 61.3 62 61 64.1

Note. BASC-2 TRS = Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition, Teacher Rating Scales; BASC-2 PRS =  Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition.
Parent Rating Scales; BASC-2 SRP = Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition, Self-Report of Personality.
aIncludes American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Pacific Islanders, and all other groups not classified as African American, Hispanic, or White.
bIf mother's or female guardian's education level was not reported, father's or male guardian's education level was used.

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Teacher Form

Age Range: 3-5

Correlations of the SSIS Teacher Form Scale and Subscale Scores With the BASC-2 TRS-P Composite and Scale Scores, Ages 3-5

  SSIS Teacher Form    
BASC-2 TRS-P Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control BASC-2 TRS-P
  r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra Mean SD
Composite                                     
Externalizing Problems -0.67 -0.66 -0.66 -0.67 -0.69 -0.69 -0.29 -0.26 -0.73 -0.78 -0.47 -0.53 -0.33 -0.26 -0.8 -0.76 50.7 10.1
Internalizing Problems -0.11 -0.11 -0.07 -0.07 -0.11 -0.11 0.1 0.09 -0.06 -0.07 0.05 0.06 -0.09 -0.07 -0.37 -0.33 49.9 7.8
Adaptive Skills 0.8 0.79 0.68 0.69 0.72 0.72 0.54 0.49 0.59 0.65 0.78 0.82 0.69 0.59 0.65 0.6 52 10.3
Behavioral Symptoms Index -0.67 -0.66 -0.58 -0.59 -0.65 -0.65 -0.34 -0.3 -0.62 -0.68 -0.52 -0.58 -0.5 -0.41 -0.7 -0.65 49.8 10.3
                                     
Scale                                    
Hyperactivity -0.64 -0.63 -0.61 -0.62 -0.66 -0.66 -0.3 -0.27 -0.71 -0.76 -0.45 -0.52 -0.35 -0.28 -0.72 -0.67 50.2 10.1
Aggression -0.64 -0.63 -0.66 -0.67 -0.67 -0.67 -0.25 -0.22 -0.7 -0.75 -0.44 -0.5 -0.26 -0.2 -0.84 -0.81 51.1 10.3
Anxiety -0.35 -0.34 -0.25 -0.26 -0.18 -0.18 -0.3 -0.27 -0.08 -0.08 -0.38 -0.43 -0.58 -0.48 -0.13 -0.11 50.9 10
Depression -0.06 -0.06 -0.01 -0.01 -0.14 -0.14 0.28 0.25 -0.18 -0.21 0.04 0.05 0.09 0.07 -0.46 -0.41 49.1 10.5
Somatization 0.32 0.31 0.17 0.17 0.18 0.18 0.31 0.28 0.2 0.23 0.63 0.69 0.5 0.41 -0.12 -0.11 49.4 7
Attention Problems -0.58 -0.57 -0.58 -0.59 -0.75 -0.75 -0.32 -0.28 -0.8 -0.84 -0.31 -0.36 -0.14 -0.11 -0.7 -0.65 50.1 9.2
Atypicality -0.53 -0.52 -0.45 -0.46 -0.41 -0.41 -0.33 -0.29 -0.32 -0.37 -0.49 -0.55 -0.64 -0.54 -0.38 -0.34 48.7 7.5
Withdrawal -0.62 -0.61 -0.44 -0.45 -0.41 -0.41 -0.59 -0.54 -0.24 -0.28 -0.68 -0.73 -0.89 -0.83 -0.23 -0.2 49.8 14.1
Adaptability 0.56 0.55 0.52 0.53 0.5 0.5 0.23 0.2 0.34 0.39 0.51 0.57 0.48 0.39 0.68 0.63 52.6 10.2
Social Skills 0.77 0.76 0.6 0.61 0.73 0.73 0.64 0.59 0.66 0.71 0.76 0.81 0.64 0.54 0.5 0.45 51.6 11.2
Functional Communication 0.75 0.74 0.67 0.68 0.65 0.65 0.54 0.49 0.54 0.6 0.77 0.82 0.68 0.58 0.55 0.5 50.8 9
                                     
SSIS Mean 100.1 15.3 12.9 12.8 13.4 12.6 14.4 14.4    
SSIS SD 15.6 3.6 3.3 4.9 3.1 3 5.3 5    

N = 16.
Note. Correlations are based on scale standard scores and subscale raw scores for SSIS and composite and scale T scores for BASC-2.
aAll correlations were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p.58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample.

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Teacher Form

Age Range: 5-12

Correlations of the SSIS Teacher Form Scale and Subscale Scores With the BASC-2 TRS-C Composite and Scale Scores, Ages 5-12

  SSIS Teacher Form    
BASC-2 TRS-C Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control BASC-2 TRS-C
  r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra Mean SD
Composite                                     
Externalizing Problems -0.58 -0.56 -0.54 -0.5 -0.67 -0.68 -0.15 -0.13 -0.75 -0.78 -0.47 -0.49 -0.4 -0.36 -0.64 -0.72 47.2 8.2
Internalizing Problems -0.43 -0.41 -0.3 -0.27 -0.46 -0.47 -0.43 -0.38 -0.38 -0.41 -0.17 -0.18 -0.51 -0.46 -0.29 -0.36 48.9 11
Adaptive Skills -0.7 -0.68 -0.63 -0.59 -0.84 -0.85 -0.46 -0.4 -0.72 -0.75 -0.39 -0.41 -0.61 -0.56 -0.59 -0.68 48.4 10
Behavioral Symptoms Index 0.85 0.84 0.77 0.74 0.76 0.77 0.65 0.59 0.76 0.79 0.65 0.97 0.81 0.77 0.73 0.8 55.3 10.3
  -0.73 -0.71 -0.63 -0.59 -0.76 -0.77 -0.47 -0.41 -0.73 -0.76 -0.54 -0.56 -0.69 -0.64 -0.65 -0.73 47.7 9.6
Scale                                    
Hyperactivity -0.56 -0.54 -0.52 -0.48 -0.77 -0.78 -0.13 -0.11 -0.76 -0.79 -0.35 -0.37 -0.38 -0.34 -0.6 -0.69 48 8.8
Aggression -0.51 -0.49 -0.46 -0.42 -0.5 -0.51 -0.12 -0.1 -0.63 -0.66 -0.51 -0.53 -0.36 -0.32 -0.6 -0.69 47.4 8.2
Conduct Problems -0.53 -0.51 -0.52 -0.48 -0.56 -0.57 -0.16 -0.14 -0.68 -0.71 -0.47 -0.49 -0.36 -0.32 -0.56 -0.65 46.6 7.7
Anxiety -0.24 -0.23 -0.14 -0.13 -0.29 -0.3 -0.34 -0.3 -0.18 -0.2 -0.01 -0.01 -0.31 -0.28 -0.12 -0.15 49.4 8.8
Depression -0.62 -0.6 -0.5 -0.46 -0.58 -0.59 0.5 -0.44 -0.52 -0.55 -0.46 -0.48 -0.65 -0.6 -0.53 -0.62 49.6 10.1
Somatization -0.24 -0.23 -0.12 -0.11 -0.32 -0.33 -0.28 -0.24 -0.27 -0.29 0.01 0.01 -0.36 -0.32 -0.11 -0.14 48.5 11.8
Attention Problems -0.7 -0.68 -0.61 -0.57 -0.86 -0.87 -0.36 -0.31 -0.77 -0.8 -0.46 -0.48 -0.59 -0.54 -0.65 -0.73 47.1 9.7
Learning Problems -0.57 -0.55 -0.53 -0.49 -0.66 -0.67 -0.48 -0.42 -0.55 -0.58 -0.26 -0.27 -0.52 -0.47 -0.42 -0.5 50 10.5
Atypicality -0.5 -0.48 -0.42 -0.39 -0.57 -0.58 -0.43 -0.38 -0.43 -0.46 -0.28 -0.29 -0.53 -0.48 -0.37 -0.45 47.8 8.5
Withdrawal -0.67 -0.65 -0.57 -0.53 -0.48 -0.49 -0.64 -0.58 -0.49 -0.52 -0.55 -0.57 -0.8 -0.76 -0.46 -0.55 49 11.8
Adaptability 0.75 0.73 0.7 0.66 0.6 0.61 0.49 0.43 0.69 0.72 0.68 0.7 0.66 0.61 0.72 0.79 56.1 8.9
Social Skills 0.8 0.78 0.77 0.74 0.56 0.57 0.62 0.56 0.66 0.69 0.68 0.7 0.79 0.75 0.7 0.78 55.1 10.5
Leadership 0.83 0.81 0.73 0.69 0.74 0.75 0.68 0.62 0.72 0.75 0.61 0.63 0.82 0.78 0.71 0.79 55.4 11.4
Study Skills 0.74 0.72 0.63 0.59 0.78 0.79 0.58 0.52 0.7 0.73 0.48 0.5 0.67 0.62 0.58 0.67 54.3 9.6
Functional Communication 0.77 0.75 0.7 0.66 0.76 0.77 0.6 0.54 0.7 0.73 0.54 0.56 0.71 0.66 0.64 0.72 53 9.3
                                     
SSIS Mean 105.2 16.5 13.4 13.1 14.5 13.8 15 16.1    
SSIS SD 15.9 4.1 3.6 4.8 3.4 3.6 4.1 3.5    

N = 41.
Note. Correlations are based on scale standard scores and subscale raw scores forSSIS and composite and scale T scores for BASC-2.
aAll correlations were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p.58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample.

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Teacher Form

Age Range: 13-18

Correlations of the SSIS Teacher Form Scale and Subscale Scores With the BASC-2 TRS-C Composite and Scale Scores, Ages 13-18

  SSIS Teacher Form    
BASC-2 TRS-A Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control BASC-2 TRS-A
  r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra Mean SD
Composite                                     
Externalizing Problems -0.42 -0.39 -0.39 -0.34 -0.59 -0.57 0.1 0.1 -0.64 -0.54 -0.2 -0.21 -0.33 -0.32 -0.45 -0.48 52.6 11.1
Internalizing Problems -0.6 -0.57 -0.61 -0.55 -0.65 -0.63 -0.21 -0.21 -0.56 -0.46 -0.35 -0.37 -0.66 -0.65 -0.55 -0.58 54.9 12.4
School Problems -0.65 -0.62 -0.59 -0.53 -0.82 -0.8 -0.16 -0.16 -0.78 -0.69 -0.36 -0.38 -0.62 -0.61 -0.61 -0.64 52.9 11.5
Adaptive Skills 0.84 0.82 0.88 0.85 0.79 0.77 0.41 0.42 0.79 0.71 0.59 0.61 0.82 0.71 0.77 0.8 52.8 10.6
Behavioral Symptoms Index -0.59 -0.56 -0.63 -0.57 -0.69 -0.67 -0.09 -0.09 -0.7 -0.6 -0.27 -0.28 -0.59 -0.58 -0.55 -0.58 54.7 11.8
                                     
Scale                                    
Hyperactivity -0.29 -0.27 -0.34 -0.29 -0.49 -0.47 0.22 0.22 -0.53 -0.43 0.03 0.03 -0.3 -0.29 -0.34 -0.37 54.6 10.7
Aggression -0.4 -0.37 -0.41 -0.36 -0.46 -0.44 0.02 0.02 -0.49 -0.4 -0.38 -0.4 -0.28 -0.27 -0.39 -0.42 51.2 9.5
Conduct Problems -0.42 -0.39 -0.34 -0.29 -0.63 -0.61 0.06 0.06 -0.69 -0.59 -0.18 -0.19 -0.31 -0.3 -0.46 -0.49 51.4 13.9
Anxiety -0.52 -0.49 -0.59 -0.53 -0.53 -0.51 -0.14 -0.14 -0.5 -0.41 -0.29 -0.3 -0.58 -0.57 -0.48 -0.51 52.5 8.2
Depression -0.61 -0.58 -0.61 -0.55 -0.73 -0.71 -0.15 -0.15 -0.71 -0.61 -0.2 -0.21 -0.67 -0.66 -0.58 -0.61 55.6 11.8
Somatization -0.45 -0.42 -0.44 -0.39 -0.47 -0.45 -0.23 -0.23 -0.3 -0.24 -0.4 -0.42 -0.49 -0.48 -0.4 -0.43 54.7 14.8
Attention Problems -0.61 -0.58 -0.58 -0.52 -0.79 -0.77 -0.11 -0.11 -0.78 -0.69 -0.31 -0.33 -0.58 -0.57 -0.55 -0.58 53.6 11
Learning Problems -0.66 -0.63 -0.58 -0.52 -0.81 -0.79 -0.18 -0.18 -0.74 -0.65 -0.39 -0.41 -0.63 -0.62 -0.63 -0.66 51.7 10.7
Atypicality -0.41 -0.38 -0.56 -0.5 -0.35 -0.33 -0.17 -0.17 -0.39 -0.31 -0.24 -0.25 -0.37 -0.36 -0.32 -0.35 53.9 12.6
Withdrawal -0.63 -0.6 -0.65 -0.59 -0.64 -0.62 -0.23 -0.23 -0.6 -0.5 -0.31 -0.33 -0.75 -0.74 -0.56 -0.59 52.9 13.1
Adaptability 0.68 0.65 0.79 0.74 0.59 0.57 0.35 0.36 0.56 0.46 0.53 0.55 0.71 0.7 0.54 0.57 50.1 10.6
Social Skills 0.77 0.74 0.77 0.72 0.69 0.67 0.39 0.4 0.66 0.56 0.62 0.64 0.79 0.78 0.7 0.73 53.8 8.6
Leadership 0.79 0.76 0.77 0.72 0.76 0.74 0.37 0.38 0.77 0.68 0.48 0.5 0.78 0.77 0.8 0.82 53.3 11.2
Study Skills 0.84 0.82 0.8 0.75 0.9 0.89 0.36 0.37 0.93 0.89 0.54 0.56 0.76 0.75 0.77 0.8 52.4 11
Functional Communication 0.76 0.73 0.87 0.83 0.67 0.65 0.39 0.4 0.69 0.59 0.55 0.57 0.72 0.71 0.66 0.69 52.1 10
                                     
SSIS Mean 97.7 15.8 12.7 13.4 12.9 12.5 14.1 13.7    
SSIS SD 16.4 4.1 3.5 4.4 4.4 3.6 4.2 4.4    

N = 16.
Note. Correlations are based on scale standard scores and subscale raw scores for SSIS and composite and scale T scores for BASC-2.
aAll correlations were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p.58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample. 

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Parent Form

Age Range: 3-5

Correlations of the SSIS Parent Form Scale and Subscale Scores With the BASC-2 PRS-P Composite and Scale Scores, Ages 3-5

  SSIS Parent Form    
BASC-2 PRS-P Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control BASC-2 PRS-P
  r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra Mean SD
Composite                                     
Externalizing Problems -0.01 -0.01 0.1 0.08 -0.1 -0.11 0.05 0.04 -0.06 -0.06 0.16 0.13 0.01 0.01 -0.47 -0.53 52.9 10.1
Internalizing Problems 0.15 0.13 0.21 0.17 -0.03 -0.03 0.29 0.22 0.18 0.17 0.33 0.27 0.09 0.09 -0.31 -0.36 54.7 8.2
Adaptive Skills 0.86 0.82 0.79 0.72 0.74 0.76 0.89 0.83 0.78 0.75 0.83 0.77 0.82 0.81 0.45 0.51 43.4 13.5
Behavioral Symptoms Index -0.41 -0.35 -0.36 -0.3 -0.62 -0.65 -0.31 -0.24 -0.38 -0.35 -0.19 -0.16 -0.33 -0.32 -0.59 -0.66 54.4 9
                                     
Scale                                    
Hyperactivity -0.13 -0.11 -0.09 -0.07 -0.33 -0.35 -0.09 -0.07 -0.13 -0.12 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 -0.48 -0.54 52.7 8.7
Aggression 0.07 0.06 0.21 0.17 0.09 0.1 0.12 0.09 -0.01 -0.01 0.23 0.19 -0.01 -0.01 -0.39 -0.45 52.6 11.7
Anxiety 0.46 0.4 0.5 0.42 0.28 0.3 0.6 0.49 0.44 0.41 0.56 0.48 0.43 0.41 -0.18 -0.21 50.4 9.6
Depression -0.11 -0.09 -0.07 -0.06 -0.28 -0.3 0.03 0.02 -0.01 -0.01 -0.02 -0.02 -0.12 -0.11 -0.42 -0.48 53.4 8.5
Somatization -0.07 -0.06 -0.05 -0.04 -0.11 -0.12 -0.08 -0.06 -0.1 -0.09 0.07 0.06 -0.17 -0.16 -0.02 -0.02 56.6 9.3
Atypicality -0.25 -0.21 -0.32 -0.26 -0.61 -0.64 -0.15 -0.11 -0.16 -0.15 -0.05 -0.04 -0.11 -0.1 -0.33 -0.38 55.5 10.5
Withdrawal -0.64 -0.57 -0.59 -0.51 -0.63 -0.66 -0.58 -0.47 -0.6 -0.57 -0.63 -0.55 -0.72 -0.7 -0.22 -0.26 50.9 8.9
Attention Problems -0.65 -0.58 -0.68 -0.6 -0.79 -0.81 -0.63 -0.52 -0.63 -0.6 -0.42 -0.35 -0.45 -0.43 -0.56 -0.63 54.8 10.6
Adaptability 0.71 0.65 0.7 0.62 0.58 0.61 0.79 0.69 0.7 0.67 0.63 0.55 0.67 0.65 0.25 0.29 43.4 9
Social Skills 0.85 0.8 0.8 0.73 0.7 0.72 0.89 0.83 0.73 0.7 0.83 0.77 0.82 0.81 0.4 0.46 47.9 11.8
Activities of Daily Living 0.72 0.66 0.61 0.53 0.64 0.66 0.73 0.63 0.61 0.58 0.78 0.71 0.68 0.66 0.43 0.49 45.2 15.2
Functional Communication 0.85 0.8 0.79 0.72 0.8 0.82 0.83 0.74 0.85 0.83 0.73 0.66 0.8 0.79 0.52 0.59 43 10.2
                                     
SSIS Mean 90.5 13.5 10.6 12.8 9.4 11 12.4 8.6    
SSIS SD 17.9 4.1 2.9 5.2 3.8 4.4 4.2 3.2    

N = 16.
Note. Correlations are based on scale standard scores and subscale raw scores for SSIS and composite and scale T scores for BASC-2.
aAll correlations were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p.58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample. 

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Parent Form

Age Range: 5-12

Correlations of the SSIS Parent Form Scale and Subscale Scores With the BASC-2 PRS-C Composite and Scale Scores, Ages 5-12

  SSIS Parent Form    
BASC-2 PRS-C Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control BASC-2 PRS-C
  r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra Mean SD
Composite                                     
Externalizing Problems -0.41 -0.45 -0.4 -0.49 -0.57 -0.63 0.06 0.06 -0.61 -0.69 -0.28 -0.32 -0.03 -0.03 -0.62 -0.68 51.3 10.3
Internalizing Problems -0.21 -0.24 -0.29 -0.37 -0.23 -0.26 0.02 0.02 -0.27 -0.33 -0.01 -0.01 -0.06 -0.07 -0.39 -0.45 53.5 10.3
Adaptive Skills 0.62 0.67 0.51 0.61 0.51 0.57 0.33 0.33 0.61 0.69 0.58 0.63 0.36 0.39 0.64 0.7 51.8 9.5
Behavioral Symptoms Index -0.47 -0.52 -0.44 -0.54 -0.55 -0.61 -0.03 -0.03 -0.59 -0.67 -0.29 -0.33 -0.16 -0.17 -0.66 -0.72 51 10.1
                                     
Scale                                    
Hyperactivity -0.25 -0.28 -0.32 -0.4 -0.45 -0.5 0.16 0.16 -0.5 -0.58 -0.18 -0.2 0.11 0.12 -0.4 -0.46 51.2 9.7
Aggression -0.44 -0.48 -0.41 -0.51 -0.54 -0.6 -0.01 -0.01 -0.58 -0.66 -0.33 -0.37 -0.04 -0.04 -0.68 -0.74 51 9.8
Conduct Problems -0.43 -0.47 -0.38 -0.47 -0.57 -0.63 0.01 0.01 -0.58 -0.66 -0.26 -0.29 -0.15 -0.16 -0.61 -0.67 51.3 11
Anxiety -0.1 -0.11 -0.18 -0.23 0.06 0.07 -0.04 -0.04 -0.07 -0.09 -0.04 -0.05 -0.11 -0.12 -0.17 -0.2 54.9 11.4
Depression -0.28 -0.31 -0.3 -0.38 -0.4 -0.45 0.14 0.14 -0.4 -0.48 -0.11 -0.13 -0.04 -0.04 -0.54 -0.61 51.7 10.5
Somatization -0.11 -0.12 -0.21 -0.27 -0.2 -0.23 -0.05 -0.05 -0.17 -0.21 0.14 0.16 0.02 0.02 -0.22 -0.26 51.8 10.1
Atypicality -0.4 -0.44 -0.41 -0.51 -0.49 -0.55 -0.06 -0.06 -0.46 -0.54 -0.19 -0.22 -0.11 -0.12 -0.61 -0.67 50.7 9.6
Withdrawal -0.39 -0.43 -0.31 -0.39 -0.12 -0.14 -0.23 -0.23 -0.26 -0.32 -0.24 -0.27 -0.51 -0.54 -0.45 -0.51 50.8 10.3
Attention Problems -0.42 -0.46 -0.36 -0.45 -0.6 -0.66 -0.08 -0.08 -0.57 -0.65 -0.29 -0.33 -0.11 -0.12 -0.45 -0.51 49.1 10.6
Adaptability 0.59 0.64 0.55 0.65 0.55 0.61 0.23 0.23 0.61 0.69 0.49 0.54 0.27 0.29 0.7 0.76 51.7 9.9
Social Skill 0.52 0.57 0.41 0.51 0.35 0.4 0.28 0.28 0.53 0.61 0.69 0.74 0.28 0.3 0.44 0.5 52 10.7
Leadership 0.52 0.57 0.39 0.48 0.29 0.33 0.44 0.44 0.39 0.46 0.41 0.46 0.43 0.46 0.51 0.58 52.7 8.2
Activities of Daily Living 0.52 0.57 0.41 0.51 0.54 0.6 0.21 0.21 0.56 0.64 0.44 0.49 0.21 0.23 0.59 0.66 49.8 10.2
Functional Communication 0.56 0.61 0.46 0.56 0.44 0.49 0.35 0.35 0.51 0.59 0.44 0.49 0.42 0.45 0.54 0.61 51.6 8.6
                                     
SSIS Mean 99.7 16.2 12.9 14.4 13.1 13.7 15.3 12.3    
SSIS SD 13.2 2.3 2.5 3.3 2.5 2.8 3.2 3.2    

N = 43.
Note. Correlations are based on scale standard scores and subscale raw scores for SSIS and composite and scale T scores for BASC-2.
aAll correlations were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p.58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample. 

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Parent Form

Age Range: 13-18

Correlations of the SSIS Parent Form Scale and Subscale Scores With the BASC-2 PRS-A Composite and Scale Scores, Ages 13-18

  SSIS Parent Form    
BASC-2 PRS-A Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control BASC-2 PRS-A
  r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra Mean SD
Composite                                     
Externalizing Problems -0.58 -0.66 -0.42 -0.48 -0.73 -0.79 0.03 0.03 -0.69 -0.83 -0.67 -0.72 -0.10 -0.11 -0.73 -0.75 50.9 10.4
Internalizing Problems -0.17 -0.21 -0.26 -0.30 -0.09 -0.11 0.08 0.08 -0.24 -0.36 -0.18 -0.20 -0.24 -0.25 -0.02 -0.02 47.5 8.2
Adaptive Skills 0.66 0.73 0.62 0.68 0.66 0.73 0.26 0.27 0.61 0.77 0.53 0.58 0.41 0.43 0.57 0.59 51.6 7.7
Behavioral Symptoms Index -0.63 -0.70 -0.56 -0.63 -0.65 -0.72 -0.13 -0.13 -0.65 -0.8 -0.55 -0.60 -0.38 -0.40 -0.57 -0.59 49.1 7.8
                                     
Scale                                    
Hyperactivity -0.5 -0.58 -0.43 -0.49 -0.59 -0.66 0.21 0.22 -0.58 -0.74 -0.56 -0.61 -0.21 -0.22 -0.69 -0.71 51.5 9.8
Aggression -0.48 -0.56 -0.42 -0.48 -0.64 -0.71 0.03 0.03 -0.57 -0.73 -0.55 -0.60 0.01 0.01 -0.64 -0.66 49.9 10.4
Conduct Problems -0.54 -0.62 -0.28 -0.33 -0.69 -0.76 -0.11 -0.11 -0.66 -0.81 -0.66 -0.71 -0.06 -0.06 -0.62 -0.64 51.0 11.0
Anxiety -0.03 -0.04 -0.01 -0.01 0.19 0.23 -0.06 -0.06 0.05 0.08 0.00 0.00 -0.33 -0.35 0.17 0.18 47.9 7.2
Depression -0.31 -0.37 -0.31 -0.36 -0.30 -0.36 0.05 0.05 -0.36 -0.51 -0.34 -0.38 -0.22 -0.23 -0.28 -0.29 49.7 8.2
Somatization -0.07 -0.09 -0.26 -0.30 -0.07 -0.08 0.19 0.20 -0.23 -0.34 -0.11 -0.12 -0.06 -0.06 0.06 0.06 46.2 9.8
Atypicality -0.52 -0.60 -0.5 -0.56 -0.49 -0.56 -0.28 -0.29 -0.54 -0.71 -0.40 -0.44 -0.42 -0.44 -0.27 -0.28 47.6 5.4
Withdrawal -0.30 -0.36 -0.21 -0.25 0.01 0.01 -0.46 -0.47 -0.09 -0.14 -0.09 -0.10 -0.66 -0.68 0.07 0.07 48.5 8.3
Attention Problems -0.46 -0.53 -0.47 -0.53 -0.63 -0.70 -0.17 -0.18 -0.49 -0.66 -0.26 -0.29 -0.17 -0.18 -0.41 -0.43 48.3 8.5
Adaptability 0.65 0.72 0.53 0.60 0.68 0.75 0.18 0.19 0.66 0.81 0.56 0.61 0.44 0.46 0.59 0.61 52.7 8.4
Social Skill 0.67 0.74 0.50 0.56 0.67 0.74 0.18 0.19 0.61 0.77 0.69 0.74 0.39 0.41 0.68 0.70 50.4 10.7
Leadership 0.40 0.47 0.48 0.54 0.39 0.46 0.47 0.48 0.35 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.45 0.47 0.06 0.06 52.9 6.8
Activities of Daily Living 0.34 0.40 0.30 0.35 0.37 0.43 -0.06 -0.06 0.35 0.50 0.46 0.51 0.00 0.00 0.48 0.50 49.7 7.7
Functional Communication 0.58 0.66 0.79 0.84 0.52 0.59 0.37 0.38 0.48 0.65 0.25 0.28 0.41 0.43 0.37 0.39 50.3 6.3
                                     
SSIS Mean 99.8 16.4 14.1 15.3 14.7 12.6 14.8 13.2    
SSIS SD 12.3 2.7 2.4 3.2 2.0 2.9 3.6 3.7    

N = 20.
Note. Correlations are based on scale standard scores and subscale raw scores for SSIS and composite and scale T scores for BASC-2.
aAll correlations were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p.58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample. 

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Student Form

Age Range: 8-12

Correlations of the SSIS Student Form Scale and Subscale Scores With the BASC-2 PRS-A Composite and Scale Scores, Ages 8-12

  SSIS Student Form    
BASC-2 SRP-C Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control BASC-2 SRP-C
  r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra Mean SD
Composite                                     
School Problems -0.41 -0.41 -0.38 -0.38 -0.39 -0.37 -0.33 -0.37 -0.20 -0.19 -0.32 -0.32 -0.33 -0.36 -0.43 -0.38 46.4 7.4
Internalizing Problems -0.09 -0.09 -0.33 -0.33 0.02 0.02 0.08 0.09 -0.07 -0.07 0.06 0.06 -0.03 -0.03 -0.24 -0.21 48.5 7.1
Inattention/Hyperactivity -0.47 -0.47 -0.35 -0.35 -0.40 -0.38 -0.30 -0.34 -0.49 -0.48 -0.38 -0.38 -0.37 -0.41 -0.41 -0.36 47.1 7.5
Emotional Symptoms Index -0.25 -0.25 -0.46 -0.46 -0.17 -0.16 -0.06 -0.07 -0.22 -0.21 -0.08 -0.08 -0.21 -0.23 -0.28 -0.25 48.6 7.7
Personal Adjustment 0.35 0.35 0.49 0.49 0.28 0.27 0.17 0.19 0.31 0.30 0.26 0.26 0.28 0.31 0.28 0.25 51.4 8.1
                                     
Scale                                    
Attitude to School -0.31 -0.31 -0.22 -0.22 -0.25 -0.24 -0.25 -0.28 -0.17 -0.17 -0.36 -0.36 -0.17 -0.19 -0.38 -0.34 46.3 7.7
Attitude to Teachers -0.41 -0.41 -0.46 -0.46 -0.43 -0.41 -0.34 -0.38 -0.18 -0.17 -0.20 -0.20 -0.42 -0.46 -0.39 -0.34 47.2 7.4
Atypicality 0.13 0.13 -0.10 -0.10 0.28 0.27 0.29 0.33 0.01 0.01 0.16 0.16 0.26 0.29 -0.11 -0.10 48.2 8.3
Locus of Control -0.05 -0.05 -0.24 -0.24 0.09 0.09 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.04 0.00 0.00 -0.10 -0.11 -0.09 -0.08 50.1 7.9
Social Stress -0.19 -0.19 -0.30 -0.30 -0.20 -0.19 -0.03 -0.03 -0.24 -0.23 0.05 0.05 -0.05 -0.06 -0.30 -0.26 46.8 6.7
Anxiety -0.03 -0.03 -0.27 -0.27 0.00 0.00 0.21 0.24 -0.06 -0.06 0.12 0.12 0.09 0.10 -0.26 -0.23 50.2 7.0
Depression -0.18 -0.18 -0.38 -0.38 -0.10 -0.09 -0.05 -0.06 -0.05 -0.05 0.00 0.00 -0.21 -0.23 -0.27 -0.24 47.9 8.7
Sense of Inadequacy -0.13 -0.13 -0.29 -0.29 -0.05 -0.05 -0.05 -0.06 -0.06 -0.06 -0.04 -0.04 -0.20 -0.22 -0.10 -0.09 49.1 7.2
Attention Problems -0.41 -0.41 -0.23 -0.23 -0.38 -0.36 -0.26 -0.29 -0.50 -0.49 -0.34 -0.34 -0.28 -0.31 -0.32 -0.28 47.5 7.9
Hyperactivity -0.46 -0.46 -0.42 -0.42 -0.36 -0.34 -0.28 -0.32 -0.40 -0.39 -0.34 -0.34 -0.40 -0.44 -0.41 -0.36 47.3 7.3
Relations with Parents 0.32 0.32 0.33 0.33 0.31 0.29 0.10 0.11 0.29 0.28 0.27 0.27 0.16 0.18 0.36 0.32 50.5 8.2
Interpersonal Relations 0.10 0.10 0.24 0.24 0.12 0.11 0.07 0.08 -0.04 -0.04 0.02 0.02 0.17 0.19 0.02 0.02 53.4 5.5
Self-Esteem 0.14 0.14 0.28 0.28 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.10 0.10 0.18 0.18 0.10 0.11 0.10 0.09 52.5 9.5
Self-Reliance 0.41 0.41 0.52 0.52 0.34 0.32 0.25 0.28 0.45 0.44 0.22 0.22 0.38 0.42 0.27 0.24 48.1 9.4
                                     
SSIS Mean 101.2 14.0 16.5 14.3 15.9 14.2 16.3 10.1    
SSIS SD 15.2 3.0 3.7 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.3 4.5    

N = 34.
Note. Correlations are based on scale standard scores and subscale raw scores for SSIS and composite and scale T scores for BASC-2.
aAll correlations were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p.58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample. 

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Student Form

Age Range: 13-18

Correlations of the SSIS Student Form Scale and Subscale Scores With the BASC-2 SRP-A Composite and Scale Scores, Ages 13-18

  SSIS Student Form    
BASC-2 SRP-A Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control BASC-2 SRP-A
  r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra Mean SD
Composite                                     
School Problems -0.48 -0.47 -0.44 -0.43 -0.61 -0.75 -0.32 -0.25 -0.48 -0.54 -0.45 -0.46 -0.18 -0.16 -0.53 -0.60 46.1 8.7
Internalizing Problems -0.49 -0.48 -0.47 -0.46 -0.48 -0.62 -0.34 -0.27 -0.57 -0.63 -0.47 -0.48 -0.31 -0.28 -0.46 -0.53 42.7 9.0
Inattention/Hyperactivity -0.65 -0.64 -0.60 -0.59 -0.62 -0.76 -0.50 -0.41 -0.71 -0.76 -0.49 -0.50 -0.34 -0.31 -0.78 -0.83 46.7 11.1
Emotional Symptoms Index -0.59 -0.58 -0.58 -0.57 -0.46 -0.60 -0.42 -0.34 -0.66 -0.71 -0.51 -0.52 -0.42 -0.38 -0.56 -0.63 42.6 9.8
Personal Adjustment 0.69 0.68 0.71 0.70 0.51 0.65 0.50 0.41 0.73 0.78 0.59 0.60 0.57 0.53 0.59 0.66 54.2 12.3
                                     
Scale                                    
Attitude to School -0.31 -0.30 -0.20 -0.19 -0.30 -0.42 -0.17 -0.13 -0.43 -0.48 -0.19 -0.20 -0.11 -0.10 -0.56 -0.63 45.3 10.6
Attitude to Teachers -0.51 -0.50 -0.61 -0.60 -0.29 -0.40 -0.45 -0.36 -0.39 -0.44 -0.58 -0.59 -0.44 -0.40 -0.27 -0.32 48.4 8.8
Sensation Seeking -0.21 -0.20 -0.18 -0.17 -0.75 -0.86 -0.07 -0.05 -0.18 -0.21 -0.24 -0.25 0.16 0.14 -0.26 -0.31 46.9 8.1
Atypicality -0.38 -0.37 -0.43 -0.42 -0.39 -0.53 -0.23 -0.18 -0.41 -0.46 -0.44 -0.45 -0.29 -0.26 -0.18 -0.21 46.0 9.1
Locus of Control -0.59 -0.58 -0.58 -0.57 -0.48 -0.62 -0.43 -0.34 -0.62 -0.68 -0.54 -0.55 -0.42 -0.38 -0.58 -0.65 44.8 9.8
Social Stress -0.56 -0.55 -0.59 -0.58 -0.40 -0.54 -0.38 -0.30 -0.66 -0.71 -0.46 -0.47 -0.49 -0.45 -0.46 -0.53 44.6 10.1
Anxiety -0.41 -0.40 -0.41 -0.40 -0.52 -0.66 -0.30 -0.24 -0.47 -0.53 -0.33 -0.34 -0.21 -0.19 -0.34 -0.40 42.5 8.5
Depression -0.26 -0.25 -0.14 -0.14 -0.16 -0.23 -0.16 -0.12 -0.42 -0.47 -0.05 -0.05 -0.14 -0.13 -0.56 -0.63 45.5 8.3
Sense of Inadequacy -0.43 -0.42 -0.40 -0.39 -0.37 -0.50 -0.30 -0.24 -0.45 -0.51 -0.49 -0.50 -0.23 -0.21 -0.40 -0.46 43.3 8.4
Somatization -0.01 -0.01 0.04 0.04 -0.22 -0.31 -0.06 -0.05 0.04 0.05 -0.24 -0.25 0.22 0.20 0.12 0.14 43.9 6.8
Attention Problems -0.73 -0.72 -0.68 -0.67 -0.56 -0.70 -0.62 -0.52 -0.80 -0.84 -0.52 -0.53 -0.47 -0.43 -0.84 -0.88 47.1 12.1
Hyperactivity -0.44 -0.43 -0.39 -0.38 -0.62 -0.76 -0.26 -0.20 -0.48 -0.54 -0.39 -0.40 -0.11 -0.10 -0.58 -0.65 47.4 8.8
Relations with Parents 0.52 0.51 0.44 0.43 0.48 0.62 0.36 0.29 0.60 0.66 0.34 0.35 0.38 0.35 0.64 0.71 50.7 12.2
Interpersonal Relations 0.49 0.48 0.59 0.58 0.32 0.44 0.36 0.29 0.51 0.57 0.47 0.48 0.46 0.42 0.25 0.30 51.8 13.1
Self-Esteem 0.61 0.60 0.66 0.65 0.43 0.57 0.46 0.37 0.69 0.74 0.45 0.46 0.57 0.53 0.50 0.57 54.2 8.5
Self-Reliance 0.57 0.56 0.58 0.57 0.39 0.53 0.43 0.34 0.55 0.61 0.62 0.63 0.42 0.38 0.48 0.55 55.6 11.8
                                     
SSIS Mean 105.7 14.0 16.8 13.5 15.9 13.9 16.1 12.1    
SSIS SD 15.4 3.3 2.6 4.8 3.1 3.2 4.0 3.0    

N = 19.
Note. Correlations are based on scale standard scores and subscale raw scores for SSIS and composite and scale T scores for BASC-2.
aAll correlations were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p.58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample. 

 

Demographic Characteristics of Samples Used for Correlations With the Vineland-II, SSCSA, and HCSBS Tests

  Vineland-II SSCSA  
Characteristic TRF Survey Parent/Caregiver Elementary Adolescent HCSBS
N 54 43 29 10 57
           
Age          
Mean (years:months) 9:7 8:11 8:2 14:6 10:8
SD (months) 43.1 49.5 21.5 16.5 39.4
           
Sex          
Female 32 16 13 5 32
Male 22 27 16 5 25
           
Race/ethnicity          
African American 5 3 6 1 8
Hispanic 1 2 6 3 0
White 45 37 17 4 47
Othera 3 1 0 2 2
           
Mother'sb education          
Grade 11 or less 4 3 4 2 1
Grade 12 or GED 20 5 10 1 12
1-3 years of college 14 12 14 4 23
4 or more years of college 16 23 1 3 21
           
Region          
Northeast 1 13 0 5 27
North Central 38 15 4 0 10
South 15 9 19 0 8
West 0 6 6 5 12
           
Test interval (days)          
Range 21-82 31-81 19-76 0-32 22-89
Mean  49.8 57.9 45.6 9.1 58.9

Note. Vineland-II TRF = Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition, Teacher Rating Form; SSCSA = The Walker McConnell Scale of Social Competence and School Adjustment; HCSBS = Home & Community Social Behavior Scales.
aIncludes American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Pacific Islanders, and all other groups not classified as African American, Hispanic, or White.
bIf mother's or female guardian's education level was not reported, father's or male guardian's education level was used.

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Teacher Form

Age Range: 3-18

Correlations of the SSIS Teacher Form Scale and Subscale Scores With the Vineland-II TRF Domain, Subdomain, and Adaptive Behavior Composite Scores

SSIS Teacher Form    
Vineland-II TRF Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control Vineland-II TRF
  r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra Mean SD
Communication 0.60 0.59 0.59 0.56 0.55 0.51 0.27 0.28 0.59 0.55 0.43 0.44 0.43 0.40 0.58 0.64 107.0 12.6
Receptive 0.51 0.50 0.53 0.50 0.60 0.56 0.06 0.06 0.59 0.55 0.45 0.46 0.25 0.23 0.50 0.56 15.6 2.1
Expressive 0.58 0.57 0.53 0.50 0.42 0.38 0.39 0.40 0.47 0.43 0.46 0.47 0.49 0.45 0.48 0.54 16.0 1.9
Written 0.50 0.49 0.52 0.49 0.49 0.45 0.18 0.18 0.54 0.50 0.30 0.31 0.30 0.27 0.53 0.59 16.8 2.4
                                     
Daily Living Skills 0.69 0.68 0.62 0.59 0.62 0.58 0.43 0.44 0.67 0.63 0.51 0.52 0.44 0.41 0.62 0.68 105.9 14.5
Personal 0.49 0.48 0.42 0.39 0.39 0.36 0.37 0.38 0.43 0.39 0.44 0.45 0.33 0.30 0.33 0.38 15.2 1.7
Academic 0.56 0.55 0.55 0.52 0.50 0.46 0.33 0.34 0.60 0.56 0.37 0.38 0.32 0.29 0.54 0.60 16.1 2.6
School Community 0.77 0.76 0.68 0.65 0.71 0.67 0.43 0.44 0.75 0.72 0.61 0.62 0.49 0.45 0.69 0.75 16.0 2.5
                                     
Socialization 0.65 0.64 0.56 0.53 0.47 0.43 0.53 0.54 0.52 0.48 0.46 0.47 0.54 0.50 0.51 0.57 105.4 15.1
Interpresonal Relationships 0.54 0.53 0.46 0.43 0.31 0.28 0.61 0.62 0.36 0.33 0.37 0.38 0.63 0.59 0.28 0.33 16.4 2.8
Play and Leisure Time 0.55 0.54 0.43 0.40 0.38 0.35 0.51 0.52 0.41 0.38 0.41 0.42 0.48 0.44 0.37 0.43 15.3 2.6
Coping Skills 0.70 0.69 0.65 0.62 0.57 0.53 0.35 0.36 0.65 0.61 0.57 0.58 0.45 0.41 0.67 0.73 15.8 2.5
                                     
Motor Skills 0.40c 0.39c 0.35c 0.33c 0.22c 0.20c 0.41c 0.42c 0.43c 0.39c 0.32c 0.33c 0.20c 0.18c 0.54c 0.60c 104.0c 14.4c
Gross 0.19c 0.19c 0.18c 0.17c 0.08c 0.07c 0.14c 0.14c 0.27c 0.25c 0.12c 0.12c 0.05c 0.05c 0.32c 0.37c 15.2c 2.4c
Fine 0.42c 0.41c 0.34c 0.32c 0.27c 0.24c 0.49c 0.50c 0.42c 0.39c 0.37c 0.38c 0.20c 0.18c 0.55c 0.61c 15.6c 2.5c
                                     
Adaptive Behavior Composite 0.68 0.67 0.61 0.58 0.56 0.52 0.45 0.46 0.62 0.58 0.49 0.50 0.49 0.45 0.62 0.68 107.4 15.2
                                     
SSIS Mean 101.3 16.2 13.3 12.5 14.0 13.0 14.0 14.6    
SSIS SD 15.4 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.1 3.6 4.2 3.8    

N = 54.
Note. Correlations are based on scale standard scores and subscale raw scores for SSIS and composite and domain standard scores, subdomain v-scale scores, and composite standard scores for Vineland-II TRF.
aAll correlations were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p.58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample.bAges 5–18; = 44. cAges 0–6; = 17. dAges 5–6; = 7. 

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Parent Form

Age Range: 3-18

Correlations of the SSIS Parent Form Scale and Subscale Scores With the Vineland-II Survey Parent/Caregiver Rating Form Domain, Subdomain, Adaptive Behavior Composite, and Maladaptive Behavior Subscale and Index Scores

SSIS Parent Form    
Vineland-II Survey Parent/Caregiver Rating Form Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control Vineland-II
  r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra Mean SD
Communication 0.23 0.25 0.21 0.22 0.22 0.24 0.01 0.01 0.28 0.30 0.17 0.18 0.06 0.07 0.30 0.30 107.6 14.8
Receptive 0.21 0.23 0.06 0.06 0.13 0.14 0.04 0.05 0.21 0.22 0.17 0.18 0.17 0.18 0.10 0.10 15.8 2.5
Expressive 0.35 0.38 0.31 0.32 0.26 0.29 0.11 0.12 0.37 0.39 0.17 0.18 0.22 0.24 0.28 0.28 16.3 3
Written -0.02 -0.02 0.03 0.03 0.09 0.10 -0.15 -0.17 -0.03 -0.03 0.01 0.01 -0.25 -0.27 0.18 0.18 16.1 3
                                     
Daily Living Skills 0.37 0.40 0.27 0.28 0.33 0.36 0.16 0.18 0.33 0.35 0.32 0.33 0.19 0.21 0.50 0.50 110.1 15.2
Personal 0.32 0.35 0.12 0.12 0.22 0.24 0.21 0.24 0.19 0.20 0.32 0.33 0.26 0.28 0.40 0.40 16.8 3.2
Domestic 0.43 0.47 0.31 0.32 0.33 0.36 0.20 0.23 0.34 0.36 0.36 0.37 0.25 0.27 0.40 0.40 15.9 2.7
Community 0.24 0.26 0.28 0.29 0.31 0.34 0.04 0.05 0.30 0.32 0.13 0.13 -0.01 -0.01 0.42 0.42 17.0 2.3
                                     
Socialization 0.44 0.48 0.35 0.36 0.36 0.39 0.19 0.21 0.42 0.44 0.34 0.35 0.20 0.22 0.46 0.46 111.1 15.6
Interpresonal Relationships 0.39 0.43 0.29 0.30 0.26 0.29 0.13 0.15 0.41 0.43 0.28 0.29 0.26 0.28 0.41 0.41 16.2 2.8
Play and Leisure Time 0.28 0.31 0.24 0.25 0.33 0.36 0.12 0.14 0.25 0.27 0.19 0.20 0.02 0.02 0.30 0.30 15.8 2.6
Coping Skills 0.45 0.49 0.36 0.37 0.35 0.38 0.24 0.27 0.38 0.40 0.39 0.40 0.27 0.29 0.38 0.38 18.1 3.5
                                     
Motor Skills -0.03b -0.03b -0.14b -0.14b 0.00b 0.00b 0.01b 0.01b 0.00b 0.00b 0.14b 0.14b 0.03b 0.03b 0.15b 0.15b 111.2b 13.0b
Gross -0.18b -0.20b -0.29b -0.30b -0.15b -0.17b -0.06b -0.07b -0.06b -0.06b 0.07b 0.07b -0.02b -0.02b -0.13b -0.13b 16.9b 2.0b
Fine 0.09b 0.10b 0.02b -0.02b 0.12b 0.13b 0.05b 0.06b 0.06b 0.06b 0.14b 0.14b 0.05b 0.05b 0.32b 0.32b 16.3b 2.8b
                                     
Adaptive Behavior Composite 0.37 0.40 0.28 0.29 0.30 0.33 0.13 0.15 0.36 0.38 0.34 0.35 0.16 0.17 0.47 0.47 111.1 14.6
Internalizing -0.05 -0.06 0.02 0.02 -0.04 -0.04 0.17 0.19 -0.06 -0.06 -0.27 -0.28 0.01 0.01 -0.19 -0.19 16 3.3
Externalizing -0.16 -0.18 -0.12 -0.12 -0.22 -0.24 0.30 0.34 -0.28 -0.03 -0.25 -0.26 -0.04 -0.04 -0.42 -0.42 15.7 3.2
Maladaptive Behavior Index -0.05 -0.06 -0.06 -0.06 -0.12 -0.13 0.26 0.29 -0.14 -0.15 -0.18 -0.19 0.09 0.10 -0.32 -0.32 16.1 3.3
                                     
SSIS Mean 97.0 15.6 12.6 14.5 12.4 12.2 14.6 11.4    
SSIS SD 13.5 2.9 2.7 3.0 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.8    

N = 43.
Note. Correlations are based on scale standard scores and subscale raw scores for SSIS and composite and domain standard scores, subdomain v-scale scores, and composite standard scores, and Maladaptive Behavior Subscale and Index.
aAll correlations were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p.58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample.bAges 3-6; = 16. 

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Teacher Form

Age Range: 5-12

Correlations of the SSIS Teacher Form Scale and Subscale Scores With the SSCSA Elementary Version Subscale and Total Scale Scores, Ages 5-12

  SSIS Teacher Form    
SSCSA Elementary Version Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control SSCSA
  r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra Mean SD
Teacher-Preferred Social Behavior 0.53 0.67 0.51 0.66 0.55 0.57 0.07 0.07 0.48 0.59 0.11 0.16 0.28 0.32 0.64 0.75 10.6 2.4
Peer-Preferred Social Behavior 0.51 0.65 0.21 0.3 0.22 0.23 0.54 0.56 0.39 0.49 0.21 0.3 0.64 0.7 0.2 0.27 10.8 2.7
School Adjustment Behavior 0.44 0.57 0.38 0.52 0.54 0.56 0.16 0.17 0.5 0.61 0.06 0.09 0.26 0.3 0.29 0.38 10.2 2.3
                                     
Total Scale 0.58 0.71 0.42 0.57 0.5 0.52 0.32 0.33 0.53 0.64 0.16 0.23 0.47 0.53 0.45 0.57 103.2 12.1
SSIS Mean 98.1 15.2 12.1 12.8 12 11.8 14 13.9    
SSIS SD 10.5 2.5 3.5 3.9 2.8 2.6 3.1 3.2    

N = 29.
Note. Correlations are based on scale standard scores and subscale raw scores for SSIS and subscale scale scores and total scale standard scores for SSCSA.
aAll correlations were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p.58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample. 

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Teacher Form

Age Range: 13-18

Correlations of the SSIS Teacher Form Scale and Subscale Scores With the SSCSA Adolescent Version Subscale and Total Scale Scores, Ages 13-18

  SSIS Teacher Form    
SSCSA Adolescent Version Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control SSCSA
  r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra Mean SD
Self-Control 0.7 0.56 0.53 0.44 0.58 0.48 0.43 0.36 0.64 0.51 0.56 0.46 0.64 0.51 0.91 0.84 10.4 4.3
Peer Relations 0.87 0.77 0.74 0.65 0.65 0.55 0.63 0.55 0.78 0.66 0.82 0.74 0.85 0.76 0.89 0.81 10 4
School Adjustment 0.91 0.83 0.79 0.71 0.78 0.69 0.65 0.57 0.85 0.75 0.82 0.74 0.84 0.74 0.92 0.85 10.5 3.8
Empathy 0.78 0.65 0.64 0.54 0.68 0.58 0.49 0.41 0.79 0.67 0.74 0.65 0.72 0.6 0.82 0.71 10.9 3.6
                                     
Total Scale 0.86 0.76 0.74 0.65 0.71 0.61 0.58 0.5 0.81 0.7 0.76 0.67 0.8 0.69 0.93 0.87 104.2 22.1
SSIS Mean 99.5 16.8 12.3 14.2 13.9 12.2 14.8 13.6    
SSIS SD 21.8 4.5 4.3 5.6 4.8 4.9 5.7 6.9    

N = 10.
Note. Correlations are based on scale standard scores and subscale raw scores for SSIS and subscale scale scores and total scale standard scores for SSCSA.
aAll correlations were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p.58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample.

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Parent Form

Age Range: 3-18

Correlations of the SSIS Parent Form Scale and Subscale Scores With the HCSBS Scale and Subscale Scores, Ages 

  SSIS Parent Form    
HCSBS Social Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control HCSBS
  r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra r Adj ra Mean SD
Social Competence 0.77 0.74 0.64 0.64 0.73 0.73 0.59 0.61 0.73 0.74 0.68 0.67 0.59 0.59 0.66 0.66 55.1 9.4
Peer Relations 0.75 0.72 0.61 0.61 0.68 0.68 0.59 0.61 0.69 0.7 0.66 0.65 0.63 0.63 0.62 0.62 54.5 9.3
Self-Management/Compliance 0.75 0.72 0.64 0.64 0.77 0.77 0.56 0.58 0.75 0.76 0.67 0.66 0.51 0.51 0.66 0.66 55.2 9
                                     
Antisocial Behavior -0.59 -0.56 -0.53 -0.53 -0.63 -0.63 -0.39 -0.41 -0.61 -0.62 -0.52 -0.51 -0.34 -0.34 -0.52 -0.52 45.9 8.9
Defiant/Disruptive -0.63 -0.6 -0.58 -0.58 -0.68 -0.68 -0.4 -0.42 -0.65 -0.66 -0.57 -0.56 -0.36 -0.36 -0.56 -0.56 45.6 8.5
Antiosocial/Aggressive -0.55 -0.52 -0.48 -0.48 -0.58 -0.58 -0.37 -0.39 -0.57 -0.58 -0.48 -0.47 -0.31 -0.31 -0.48 -0.48 46.4 8.4
                                     
SSIS Mean 102.9 17.1 13.9 15.4 13.8 13.5 15.4 13.8    
SSIS SD 16.2 3 3 3.2 3.1 3.4 3.7 3.8    

N = 57.
Note. Correlations are based on scale standard scores and subscale raw scores for SSIS and scale and subscale T scores for HCSBS.
aAll correlations were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p.58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample.

Disaggregated Reliability and Validity Data: Partially Convincing Evidence

Disaggregated Reliability

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Teacher Form

Age Range: 3-5, 5-12, 13-18

Internal Consistency Reliability: Coefficient Alpha for the Teacher Form Scales and Subscales, by Age and Norm Group

Teacher Form Ages 3-5   Ages 5-12   Ages 13-18
  Female Male Combined   Female Male Combined   Female Male Combined
Social Skills 0.96 0.97 0.97   0.96 0.97 0.97   0.97 0.97 0.97
Communication 0.84 0.85 0.85   0.85 0.85 0.86   0.86 0.85 0.86
Cooperation 0.89 0.9 0.9   0.9 0.92 0.91   0.89 0.9 0.9
Assertion 0.83 0.89 0.87   0.82 0.84 0.83   0.88 0.87 0.87
Responsibility 0.9 0.9 0.9   0.91 0.9 0.91   0.88 0.9 0.9
Empathy 0.86 0.88 0.88   0.89 0.93 0.92   0.93 0.88 0.91
Engagement 0.84 0.91 0.89   0.81 0.85 0.84   0.9 0.87 0.89
Self-Control 0.86 0.92 0.9   0.89 0.91 0.9   0.94 0.91 0.93
                       
Problem Behaviors 0.94 0.94 0.94   0.94 0.95 0.95   0.95 0.96 0.96
Externalizing 0.93 0.93 0.93   0.94 0.93 0.93   0.95 0.93 0.94
Bullying 0.74 0.76 0.75   0.74 0.79 0.78   0.73 0.75 0.75
Hyperactivity/Inattention 0.88 0.91 0.9   0.9 0.9 0.9   0.88 0.89 0.89
Internalizing 0.78 0.83 0.81   0.82 0.83 0.83   0.9 0.9 0.9
Autism Spectrum 0.84 0.89 0.88   0.87 0.89 0.88   0.87 0.87 0.87
                       
Academic Competence - - -   0.97 0.97 0.97   0.97 0.94 0.96
Median scale reliability 0.95 0.96 0.96   0.96 0.97 0.97   0.97 0.96 0.96
Median subscale reliability 0.85 0.9 0.89   0.88 0.9 0.89   0.89 0.89 0.9

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Parent Form

Age Range: 3-5, 5-12, 13-18

Internal Consistency Reliability: Coefficient Alpha for the Parent Form Scales and Subscales, by Age and Norm Group

Parent Form Ages 3-5   Ages 5-12   Ages 13-18
  Female Male Combined   Female Male Combined   Female Male Combined
Social Skills 0.95 0.97 0.96   0.95 0.95 0.95   0.95 0.96 0.96
Communication 0.72 0.78 0.76   0.74 0.74 0.74   0.76 0.83 0.8
Cooperation 0.83 0.87 0.86   0.82 0.84 0.83   0.84 0.85 0.85
Assertion 0.78 0.83 0.81   0.73 0.76 0.75   0.75 0.8 0.77
Responsibility 0.84 0.87 0.86   0.83 0.84 0.84   0.84 0.87 0.86
Empathy 0.84 0.89 0.88   0.85 0.86 0.86   0.87 0.88 0.87
Engagement 0.87 0.86 0.86   0.83 0.84 0.83   0.86 0.87 0.86
Self-Control 0.81 0.84 0.83   0.84 0.84 0.84   0.86 0.85 0.85
                       
Problem Behaviors 0.93 0.94 0.94   0.93 0.94 0.94   0.93 0.96 0.95
Externalizing 0.89 0.9 0.9   0.88 0.9 0.89   0.88 0.92 0.9
Bullying 0.82 0.82 0.82   0.75 0.77 0.76   0.73 0.85 0.81
Hyperactivity/Inattention 0.86 0.84 0.85   0.84 0.85 0.85   0.82 0.86 0.84
Internalizing 0.75 0.83 0.8   0.83 0.82 0.82   0.84 0.9 0.87
Autism Spectrum 0.8 0.87 0.85   0.82 0.83 0.83   0.81 0.88 0.85
                       
Median scale reliability 0.94 0.96 0.95   0.94 0.95 0.95   0.94 0.96 0.96
Median subscale reliability 0.83 0.85 0.85   0.83 0.84 0.83   0.84 0.87 0.85

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Student Form

Age Range: 3-7, 8-12, 13-18

Internal Consistency Reliability: Coefficient Alpha for the Student Form Scales and Subscales, by Age and Norm Group

Student Form Ages 3-7   Ages 8-12   Ages 13-18
  Female Male Combined   Female Male Combined   Female Male Combined
Social Skills -- -- --   0.94 0.95 0.94   0.95 0.95 0.95
Communication -- -- --   0.75 0.76 0.76   0.78 0.83 0.81
Cooperation -- -- --   0.76 0.8 0.79   0.84 0.82 0.83
Assertion -- -- --   0.72 0.77 0.75   0.75 0.75 0.75
Responsibility -- -- --   0.73 0.7 0.72   0.81 0.79 0.8
Empathy -- -- --   0.79 0.79 0.8   0.8 0.84 0.83
Engagement -- -- --   0.73 0.75 0.74   0.8 0.76 0.78
Self-Control -- -- --   0.78 0.81 0.79   0.84 0.82 0.83
  -- -- --                
Problem Behaviors -- -- --   0.9 0.92 0.91   0.94 0.95 0.95
Externalizing -- -- --   0.84 0.86 0.86   0.89 0.91 0.9
Bullying -- -- --   0.78 0.78 0.79   0.82 0.82 0.82
Hyperactivity/Inattention -- -- --   0.81 0.77 0.79   0.84 0.88 0.86
Internalizing -- -- --   0.81 0.83 0.82   0.87 0.88 0.88
  -- -- --                
Median scale reliability -- -- --   0.92 0.94 0.93   0.95 0.95 0.95
Median subscale reliability -- -- --   0.78 0.78 0.79   0.82 0.82 0.82

 

Disaggregated Validity

Special-Population Samples for the Teacher Form by Age, Sex, Race/Ethnicity, and Mother’s Education Level

      Sex 
      Female Male
Study group Age N N % N %
Autism spectrum disorder 3-14 41 9 22 32 78
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 4-17 30 11 36.7 19 63.3
Developmental delay 3-7 16 5 31.3 11 68.8
Emotional/behavioral disturbance 4-17 9 1 11.1 8 88.9
Gifted/talented 7-18 38 19 50 19 50
Intellectual disability 6-18 14 4 28.6 10 71.4
Specific learning disability 5-17 23 14 60.9 9 39.1
Speech/language impairment 3-17 49 17 34.7 32 65.3

 

      Race/Ethnicity
      African American Hispanic White Otherb
Study group Age N N % N % N % N %
Autism spectrum disorder 3-14 41 5 12.2 3 7.3 32 78 1 2.4
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 4-17 30 5 16.7 4 13.3 17 56.7 4 13.3
Developmental delay 3-7 16 5 31.3 4 25 6 37.5 1 6.3
Emotional/behavioral disturbance 4-17 9 2 22.2 3 33.3 4 44.4 0 0
Gifted/talented 7-18 38 2 5.3 5 13.2 17 44.7 14 36.8
Intellectual disability 6-18 14 3 21.4 5 35.7 5 35.7 1 7.1
Specific learning disability 5-17 23 7 30.4 6 26.1 8 34.8 2 8.7
Speech/language impairment 3-17 49 12 24.5 12 24.5 22 44.9 3 6.1

 

      Mother'sa education level
      Grade 11 or less Grade 12 or GED 1-3 years of college 4 or more years of college
Study group Age N N % N % N % N %
Autism spectrum disorder 3-14 41 4 9.8 6 14.6 16 39 15 36.6
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 4-17 30 8 26.7 8 26.7 7 23.3 7 23.3
Developmental delay 3-7 16 4 25 2 12.5 5 31.3 5 31.3
Emotional/behavioral disturbance 4-17 9 2 22.2 2 22.2 4 44.4 1 11.1
Gifted/talented 7-18 38 2 5.3 9 23.7 12 31.6 15 39.5
Intellectual disability 6-18 14 7 50 3 21.4 4 28.6 0 0
Specific learning disability 5-17 23 9 39.1 5 21.7 8 34.8 1 4.3
Speech/language impairment 3-17 49 12 24.5 13 26.5 14 28.6 10 20.4

aIf mother’s or female guardian’s education level was not reported, father’s or male guardian’s education level was used.
bIncludes American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Pacific Islanders, and all other groups not classified as African American, Hispanic, or White.
cReported as “Mental Retardation” by U.S. Department of Education.

 

Special-Population Samples for the Parent Form by Age, Sex, Race/Ethnicity, and Mother’s Education Level

      Sex 
      Female Male
Study group Age N N % N %
Autism spectrum disorder 3-18 50 11 22 39 78
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 3-18 74 26 35.1 48 64.9
Developmental delay 3-7 17 4 23.5 13 76.5
Emotional/behavioral disturbance 4-17 16 1 6.3 15 93.8
Gifted/talented 6-18 76 44 57.9 32 42.1
Intellectual disabilityc 4-18 17 7 41.2 10 58.8
Specific learning disability 5-18 43 18 41.9 25 58.1
Speech/language impairment 3-18 59 21 35.6 38 64.4

 

      Rcae/Ethnicity
      African American Hispanic White Otherb
Study group Age N N % N % N % N %
Autism spectrum disorder 3-18 50 7 14 3 6 39 78 1 2
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 3-18 74 7 9.5 5 6.8 58 78.4 4 5.4
Developmental delay 3-7 17 5 29.4 3 17.6 8 47.1 1 5.9
Emotional/behavioral disturbance 4-17 16 2 12.5 3 18.8 11 68.8 0 0
Gifted/talented 6-18 76 4 5.3 6 7.9 45 59.2 21 27.6
Intellectual disabilityc 4-18 17 3 17.6 6 35.3 7 41.2 1 5.9
Specific learning disability 5-18 43 10 23.3 5 11.6 26 60.5 2 4.7
Speech/language impairment 3-18 59 12 20.3 8 13.6 36 61 3 5.1

 

      Mother'sa education level
        Grade 12 or GED 1-3 years of college 4 or more years of college
Study group Age N N % N % N % N %
Autism spectrum disorder 3-18 50 5 10 7 14 21 42 17 34
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 3-18 74 9 12.2 20 27 29 39.2 16 21.6
Developmental delay 3-7 17 3 17.6 3 17.6 6 35.3 5 29.4
Emotional/behavioral disturbance 4-17 16 3 18.8 4 25 6 37.5 3 18.8
Gifted/talented 6-18 76 4 5.3 14 18.4 26 34.2 32 42.1
Intellectual disabilityc 4-18 17 8 47.1 5 29.4 4 23.5 0 0
Specific learning disability 5-18 43 7 16.3 13 30.2 16 37.2 7 16.3
Speech/language impairment 3-18 59 9 15.3 18 30.5 20 33.9 12 20.3

aIf mother’s or female guardian’s education level was not reported, father’s or male guardian’s education level was used.
bIncludes American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Pacific Islanders, and all other groups not classified as African American, Hispanic, or White.
cReported as “Mental Retardation” by U.S. Department of Education.

Special-Population Samples for the Student Form by Age, Sex, Race/Ethnicity, and Mother’s Education Level

      Sex 
      Female Male
Study group Age N N % N %
Autism spectrum disorder 8-14 9 0 0 9 100
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 8-18 62 20 32.3 42 67.7
Emotional/behavioral disturbance 9-17 11 0 0 11 100
Gifted/talented 8-18 68 41 60.3 27 39.7
Intellectual disabilityc 10-18 11 4 36.4 7 63.6
Specific learning disability 8-18 40 15 37.5 25 62.5
Speech/language impairment 8-17 23 9 39.1 14 60.9

 

      Rcae/Ethnicity
      African American Hispanic White Otherb
Study group Age N N % N % N % N %
Autism spectrum disorder 8-14 9 2 22.2 1 11.1 6 66.7 0 0
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 8-18 62 2 3.2 2 3.2 55 88.7 3 4.8
Emotional/behavioral disturbance 9-17 11 1 9.1 3 27.3 7 63.6 0 0
Gifted/talented 8-18 68 3 4.4 7 10.3 41 60.3 17 25
Intellectual disabilityc 10-18 11 2 18.2 2 18.2 6 54.5 1 9.1
Specific learning disability 8-18 40 8 20 6 15 25 62.5 1 2.5
Speech/language impairment 8-17 23 4 17.4 3 13 15 65.2 1 4.3

 

      Mother'sa education level
      Grade 11 or less Grade 12 or GED 1-3 years of college 4 or more years of college
Study group Age N N % N % N % N %
Autism spectrum disorder 8-14 9 3 33.3 2 22.2 1 11.1 3 33.3
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 8-18 62 6 9.7 17 27.4 26 41.9 13 21
Emotional/behavioral disturbance 9-17 11 1 9.1 4 36.4 3 27.3 3 27.3
Gifted/talented 8-18 68 4 5.9 11 16.2 25 36.8 28 41.2
Intellectual disabilityc 10-18 11 6 54.5 4 36.4 1 9.1 0 0
Specific learning disability 8-18 40 7 17.5 11 27.5 15 37.5 7 17.5
Speech/language impairment 8-17 23 3 13 7 30.4 11 47.8 2 8.7

aIf mother’s or female guardian’s education level was not reported, father’s or male guardian’s education level was used.
bIncludes American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Pacific Islanders, and all other groups not classified as African American, Hispanic, or White.
cReported as “Mental Retardation” by U.S. Department of Education.

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Teacher Form, Parent Form, Student Form

Age Range: 3-18

Autism Spectrum Disorder Sample: Mean and Standard Deviation of Scale Standard Scores and Subscale Raw Scores With Comparison to Nonclinical Reference Group, by Form

orm, scale, and subscale N Mean SD Difference from nonclinical reference groupa
Teacher        
Social Skills 41 74.6 15.9 -25.2***
Communication 41 9.6 4.5 -6.2***
Cooperation 41 9.6 3.1 -3.3***
Assertion 41 7.4 4.3 -5.4***
Responsibility 41 8.2 4.1 -5.0***
Empathy 41 7 4.7 -5.2***
Engagement 41 8.1 3.8 -6.6***
Self-Control 41 8.1 4.2 -6.0***
         
Parent        
Social Skills 50 75.8 16.2 -23.1***
Communication 50 11.6 3.4 -4.3***
Cooperation 50 10.3 3.1 -2.6***
Assertion 50 10.2 4.2 -4.6***
Responsibility 50 8.7 4.3 -4.1***
Empathy 50 8.5 3.8 -4.5***
Engagement 50 9.4 4.5 -5.7***
Self-Control 50 7.4 3.6 -4.6***
         
Student        
Social Skills 9 92 22.4 -5
Communication 9 11.9 4.6 -1.3
Cooperation 9 15.7 5.5 0.9
Assertion 9 13.2 5.8 0
Responsibility 9 13.8 5 -0.8
Empathy 9 10.8 5.6 -1.6
Engagement 9 11.8 4.1 -3.2*
Self-Control 9 10.7 4.4 -0.1

aAdjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, and education level to match nonclinical reference group proportions.
bAdministered ages 5–18.
*p<.05. **p<.01. ***p<.001.

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Teacher Form, Parent Form, Student Form

Age Range: 3-18

ADHD Sample: Mean and Standard Deviation of Scale Standard Scores and Subscale Raw Scores With Comparison to Nonclinical Reference Group, by Form

Form, scale, and subscale N Mean SD Difference from nonclinical reference groupa
Teacher        
Social Skills 30 86.9 13.6 -12.2***
Communication 30 12.7 3.5 -2.8***
Cooperation 30 9.8 2.8 -3.0***
Assertion 30 10.8 3.6 -1.6*
Responsibility 30 10.3 3.5 -2.7***
Empathy 30 10.4 3.9 -1.7*
Engagement 30 11.6 4.2 -2.8***
Self-Control 30 11.4 4.3 -2.6**
         
Parent        
Social Skills 74 87.7 14.5 -11.5***
Communication 74 14.5 3.2 -1.3***
Cooperation 74 10.9 2.7 -2.1***
Assertion 74 13.3 3.6 -1.6***
Responsibility 74 11.1 3.2 -1.8***
Empathy 74 11.7 3.9 -1.5***
Engagement 74 13.2 3.9 -2.0***
Self-Control 74 9.6 3.7 -2.3***
         
Student        
Social Skills 62 95.5 18.7 -4.5*
Communication 62 12.7 3.8 -1.1*
Cooperation 62 14.6 4.8 -1.1*
Assertion 62 13.5 4.5 -0.1
Responsibility 62 13.6 4.1 -1.5***
Empathy 62 12.7 4 -0.6
Engagement 62 14.6 4.5 -0.6
Self-Control 62 10.1 4.4 -1.1*

aAdjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, and education level to match nonclinical reference group proportions.
bAdministered ages 5–18.
*p<.05. **p<.01. ***p<.001.

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Teacher Form, Parent Form

Age Range: 3-18

Developmental Delay Sample: Mean and Standard Deviation of Scale Standard Scores and Subscale Raw Scores With Comparison to Nonclinical Reference Group, by Form

Form, scale, and subscale N Mean SD Difference from nonclinical reference groupa
Teacher        
Social Skills 16 69.8 20.6 -27.6***
Communication 16 7.2 5.1 -8.0***
Cooperation 16 7.6 4.3 -4.8***
Assertion 16 6.4 4.6 -5.8***
Responsibility 16 6.9 4.9 -5.7***
Empathy 16 7.4 5.2 -4.2***
Engagement 16 8 5.6 -6.2***
Self-Control 16 6.8 5.7 -6.7***

 

Form, scale, and subscale N Mean SD Difference from nonclinical reference groupa
Parent        
Social Skills 17 72.9 15.3 -26.0***
Communication 17 10.4 3 -5.4***
Cooperation 17 9.5 2.6 -3.5***
Assertion 17 9.4 4.4 -5.5***
Responsibility 17 6.4 3.6 -6.3***
Empathy 17 8.4 4.5 -4.6***
Engagement 17 8.9 4.8 -6.2***
Self-Control 17 5.4 2.9 -6.5***

aAdjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, and education level to match nonclinical reference group proportions.
bAdministered ages 5–18.
*p<.05. ***p<.001.

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Teacher Form, Parent Form, Student Form

Age Range: 3-18

Emotional/Behavioral Disturbance Sample: Mean and Standard Deviation of Scale Standard Scores and Subscale Raw Scores With Comparison to Nonclinical Reference Group, by Form

Form, scale, and subscale N Mean SD Difference from nonclinical reference groupa
Teacher        
Social Skills 9 77 9.6 -19.1***
Communication 9 10.2 3.4 -4.6***
Cooperation 9 8.9 2.6 -3.2**
Assertion 9 11.7 3.1 -0.4
Responsibility 9 6.9 2.6 -5.4***
Empathy 9 9.1 4.5 -2.2
Engagement 9 9.4 3.2 -4.5***
Self-Control 9 6.2 3 -7.0***

 

Form, scale, and subscale N Mean SD Difference from nonclinical reference groupa
Parent        
Social Skills 16 78.8 11.9 -19.6***
Communication 16 12.7 3.2 -2.9***
Cooperation 16 9 2.5 -3.9***
Assertion 16 13.3 3.9 -1.5
Responsibility 16 8.2 2.6 -4.5***
Empathy 16 9.4 3.1 -3.5***
Engagement 16 11.7 4.4 -3.4***
Self-Control 16 6.9 2.4 -5.0***

 

Form, scale, and subscale N Mean SD Difference from nonclinical reference groupa
Student        
Social Skills 11 88.1 21.1 -11.0*
Communication 11 11.8 4.4 -1.7
Cooperation 11 11.6 4.5 -3.8***
Assertion 11 11.8 5.3 -1.8
Responsibility 11 13.1 3.8 -1.8
Empathy 11 12.1 4.1 -0.6
Engagement 11 12.4 5 -3.0**
Self-Control 11 8.6 3 -2.4*

aAdjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, and education level to match nonclinical reference group proportions.
bAdministered ages 5–18.
*p<.05. **p<.01. ***p<.001.

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Teacher Form, Parent Form, Student Form

Age Range: 3-18

Gifted/Talented Sample: Mean and Standard Deviation of Scale Standard Scores and Subscale Raw Scores With Comparison to Nonclinical Reference Group, by Form

Form, scale, and subscale N Mean SD Difference from nonclinical reference groupa
Teacher        
Social Skills 38 101 13.7 0
Communication 38 16.6 3.2 0.5
Cooperation 38 14.8 2.5 1.6**
Assertion 38 10.6 5 -2.0**
Responsibility 38 15.2 2.8 1.7**
Empathy 38 11.1 4.3 -1.3*
Engagement 38 14.5 3.3 -0.4
Self-Control 38 15 4.8 0.4

 

Form, scale, and subscale N Mean SD Difference from nonclinical reference groupa
Parent        
Social Skills 76 105.8 11.9 5.7**
Communication 76 17.4 2.3 1.3***
Cooperation 76 14.6 2.5 1.5***
Assertion 76 15.4 2.9 0.5
Responsibility 76 15.1 2.4 2.0***
Empathy 76 14.3 2.5 0.9*
Engagement 76 15.8 3.2 0.8
Self-Control 76 14.1 3.3 1.9***

 

Form, scale, and subscale N Mean SD Difference from nonclinical reference groupa
Student        
Social Skills 68 105.6 13.5 4.6*
Communication 68 14.3 2.7 0.4
Cooperation 68 17.1 2.9 1.2*
Assertion 68 14.3 3.9 0.5
Responsibility 68 16.7 2.8 1.3**
Empathy 68 14.5 3 0.8
Engagement 68 16.2 3.2 0.9*
Self-Control 68 12.2 3.5 1.0*

aAdjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, and education level to match nonclinical reference group proportions.
*p<.05. **p<.01. ***p<.001.

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Teacher Form, Parent Form, Student Form

Age Range: 3-18

Intellectual Disabilitya Sample: Mean and Standard Deviation of Scale Standard Scores and Subscale Raw Scores With Comparison to Nonclinical Reference Group, by Form

Form, scale, and subscale N Mean SD Difference from nonclinical reference groupa
Teacher        
Social Skills 14 83.2 16.6 -12.1**
Communication 14 11.5 5 -3.2**
Cooperation 14 10.4 3.2 -1.6
Assertion 14 10.4 5.3 -1.4
Responsibility 14 9.8 3.4 -2.4*
Empathy 14 9.1 4.3 -2.3*
Engagement 14 11.5 4.9 -2.1*
Self-Control 14 9.5 4.9 -3.6**

 

Form, scale, and subscale N Mean SD Difference from nonclinical reference groupa
Parent        
Social Skills 17 81.2 16 -18.4***
Communication 17 12.8 3.3 -2.8***
Cooperation 17 10.2 3.1 -2.9***
Assertion 17 12.4 4.2 -2.7**
Responsibility 17 9.8 3.3 -3.1***
Empathy 17 11.4 4.2 -1.9*
Engagement 17 11.2 4.3 -4.0***
Self-Control 17 7.9 3.5 -4.1***

 

Form, scale, and subscale N Mean SD Difference from nonclinical reference groupa
Student        
Social Skills 11 100 18.2 3
Communication 11 13.4 3.8 0.3
Cooperation 11 16 3.8 1.2
Assertion 11 14.4 4 0.9
Responsibility 11 13.6 4.2 -0.9
Empathy 11 12.6 3.7 0.1
Engagement 11 15.1 4.8 0.5
Self-Control 11 11.4 4.3 0.6

aReported as “Mental Retardation” by U.S. Department of Education.
bAdjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, and education level to match nonclinical reference group proportions.
*p<.05. **p<.01. ***p<.001

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Teacher Form, Parent Form, Student Form

Age Range: 3-18

Specific Learning Disability Sample: Mean and Standard Deviation of Scale Standard Scores and Subscale Raw Scores With Comparison to Nonclinical Reference Group, by Form

Form, scale, and subscale N Mean SD Difference from nonclinical reference groupa
Teacher        
Social Skills 23 91 16.3 -6.7*
Communication 23 13.7 4.7 -1.5
Cooperation 23 10.8 3.9 -1.7*
Assertion 23 10.8 4.2 -1.4
Responsibility 23 11.6 3.8 -1.2
Empathy 23 11.4 4 -0.6
Engagement 23 11.8 3.8 -2.4**
Self-Control 23 12 4.6 -1.6

 

Form, scale, and subscale N Mean SD Difference from nonclinical reference groupa
Parent        
Social Skills 43 95.8 16.4 -3.5
Communication 43 15.5 3.2 -0.2
Cooperation 43 12.4 3 -0.7
Assertion 43 14.4 3.4 -0.6
Responsibility 43 12.7 3.4 -0.1
Empathy 43 12.8 3.7 -0.4
Engagement 43 14.6 4.1 -0.6
Self-Control 43 11.2 3.2 -0.7

 

Form, scale, and subscale N Mean SD Difference from nonclinical reference groupa
Student        
Social Skills 40 97.1 17.9 -2.1
Communication 40 13.1 3.5 -0.5
Cooperation 40 14.8 4.2 -0.6
Assertion 40 13.9 3.9 0.2
Responsibility 40 14.4 4.1 -0.6
Empathy 40 12.4 4.3 -0.7
Engagement 40 14.5 4.5 -0.7
Self-Control 40 10.8 4 -0.1

aAdjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, and education level to match nonclinical reference group proportions.
*p<.05. **p<.01. 

 

Subscales: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control

Form: Teacher Form, Parent Form, Student Form

Age Range: 3-18

Speech/Language Impairment Sample: Mean and Standard Deviation of Scale Standard Scores and Subscale Raw Scores With Comparison to Nonclinical Reference Group, by Form

Form, scale, and subscale N Mean SD Difference from nonclinical reference groupa
Teacher        
Social Skills 49 83.1 19.8 -14.8***
Communication 49 11.2 5.6 -4.1***
Cooperation 49 10.6 3.9 -1.9***
Assertion 49 8.6 4.5 -3.8***
Responsibility 49 9.9 4.5 -2.8***
Empathy 49 9.4 4.8 -2.5***
Engagement 49 10 4.7 -4.3***
Self-Control 49 10.3 5.4 -3.3***

 

Form, scale, and subscale N Mean SD Difference from nonclinical reference groupa
Parent        
Social Skills 59 90 22.1 -9.0***
Communication 59 13.9 4 -1.9***
Cooperation 59 12 3.5 -1.0*
Assertion 59 12.6 5.2 -2.4***
Responsibility 59 10.9 5 -1.9***
Empathy 59 11.4 4.7 -1.7***
Engagement 59 12.8 5.1 -2.4***
Self-Control 59 9.7 5.1 -2.2***

 

Form, scale, and subscale N Mean SD Difference from nonclinical reference groupa
Student        
Social Skills 23 94.5 18.7 -4.6
Communication 23 12 3.5 -1.6*
Cooperation 23 15 4.5 -0.4
Assertion 23 13.4 5.1 -0.3
Responsibility 23 14.6 3.9 -0.3
Empathy 23 11.9 4 -1.1
Engagement 23 13.8 4.2 -1.3
Self-Control 23 10.8 4.8 -0.1

aAdjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, and education level to match nonclinical reference group proportions.
bAdministered ages 5–18.
*p<.05. **p<.01. ***p<.001.

Assessment Format: Rating Scale

Rater / Scorer: General Education Teacher, Special Education Teacher, Parent, Child

Usability Study Conducted: Yes

The SSIS Rating Scales has been in use in schools since it published in 2008. The SSIS is a revision of the widely used Social Skills Rating System (SSRS), which has been used in classrooms since it published in 1990.

Readability Study

The reading level of both the items and the instructions of the Teacher, Parent, and Student Forms was analyzed using the Flesch Grade Level Index. This index measures readability in terms of sentence length and number of syllables per word and expresses readability in grade levels. The Teacher Form reading grade level is 6.8, the Parent Form is 5.3, and that of each of the Student Forms is lower than Grade 2.

Readability by Form

Teacher - 6.8

Parent - 5.3

Student (Ages 8-12) - 1.8

Student (Ages 13-18) - 1.9