Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales (SSIS)

Scale: Academic Competence

 

Descriptive Information Usage Acquisition and Cost Program Specifications and Requirements Training

The Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS) Rating Scales consists of standardized, norm-referenced scales. It documents the perceived frequency and importance of behaviors influencing students' development of social competence and adaptive functioning in school, home, and community settings.

The SSIS Rating Scales measures seven domains of social skills functioning: Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, and Self-Control; and five domains of competing problem behaviors: Externalizing, Bullying, Hyperactivity/Inattention, Internalizing, and Autism Spectrum. It provides a brief assessment of problem behaviors that may interfere with a student's ability to acquire or perform social skills, and it includes a broad measure of academic performance.

The SSIS Rating Scales assists professionals in screening and classifying students suspected of having significant social skills deficits and aids in the development of interventions for those students. It uses a multirater approach that may include ratings from teachers, parents, and the students themselves. 

SSIS is intended for use for students in kindergarten through twelfth grade. The program is intended for use with students in general education.

The tool provides information on student behavior in English.

Pearson

Attn: Inbound Sales and Customer Support
19500 Bulverde Road
San Antonio, TX 78259

Phone: 800-627-7271

Website: www.pearsonassessments.com

SSIS Rating Scales Hand-Scored Starter Sets

Hand-Scored Starter Sets - English -Includes manual, one pkg of each form: Teacher, Parent, Student ages 8-12, Student ages 13-18 - $261.00

Hand-Scored Starter Sets - English/Spanish - Includes manual, one pkg of each form: Teacher, Parent, Student ages 8-12, Student ages 13-18 - $342.40

Administration Materials

SSIS Rating Scales Manual - $109.30

SSIS Rating Scales - Hand-Scored English Forms - Teacher - (ages 3-18) - Pkg. of 25 - $45.30

SSIS Rating Scales - Hand-Scored English Forms - Parent - (ages 3-18) - Pkg. of 25 - $45.30

SSIS Rating Scales - Hand-Scored English Forms - Student - (ages 8-12) - Pkg. of 25 - $45.30

SSIS Rating Scales - Hand-Scored English Forms - Student - (ages 13-18) - Pkg. of 25 - $45.30

SSIS Rating Scales - Computer-Entry Forms-English - Teacher - (ages 3-18) - Pkg. of 25 - $56.35

SSIS Rating Scales - Computer-Entry Forms-English - Parent - (ages 3-18) - Pkg. of 25 - $56.35

SSIS Rating Scales - Computer-Entry Forms-English - Student - (ages 8-12) - Pkg. of 25 - $56.35

SSIS Rating Scales - Computer-Entry Forms-English - Student - (ages 13-18) - Pkg. of 25 - $56.35

SSIS Rating Scales ASSIST Software CD-ROM (Win/Mac) - $279.50

SSIS Rating Scales ASSIST Software for Scanning CD-ROM (Win) - $662.60

SSIS ASSIST Starter Set - Computer-Entry (English) - includes manual, one pkg of each form: Teacher, Parent, Student ages 8-18; Student ages 13-18 and ASSIST Software - $543.60

SSIS ASSIST Starter Set - Computer-Entry (English/Spanish) - includes manual, one pkg of each form: Teacher, Parent, Student ages 8-18, Student ages 13-18 and ASSIST Software - $645.00

SSIS ASSIST Starter Set - Scanning (English) - (includes manual, one pkg of each form: Teacher, Parent, Student ages 8-18, Student ages 13-18 and ASSIST Software - $875.00

SSIS ASSIST Starter Set - Scanning (English/Spanish) - (includes manual, one pkg of each form: Teacher, Parent, Student ages 8-18, Student ages 13-18 and ASSIST Software - $976.00

SSIS Rating Scales - Computer-Entry Forms-Spanish - Parent - Pkg. of 25 - $56.35

SSIS Rating Scales - Computer-Entry Forms-Spanish - Student - (ages 8-12) -Pkg. of 25 - $56.35

SSIS Rating Scales - Computer-Entry Forms-Spanish - Student - (ages 13-18) - Pkg. of 25 - $56.35

SSIS Rating Scales - Hand-Scored Spanish Forms - Parent - Pkg. of 25 - $45.30

SSIS Rating Scales - Hand-Scored Spanish Forms - Student - (ages 8-12) -Pkg. of 25 - $45.30

SSIS Rating Scales - Hand-Scored Spanish Forms - Student - (ages 13-18) - Pkg. of 25 - $45.30

SSIS Audio CD of Rating Forms (English) - $45.50

Audio CD of Rating Forms (Spanish)         - $45.50

If a parent or student has difficulty reading the form, he or she may listen to the questions on the audio version (CD), or the administrator may read the questions aloud. If necessary, the rater can respond orally and the administrator can fill out the form.

Teachers, parents, and students are raters on corresponding forms. Forms are scored by various school professionals, such as  psychologists, general education teachers, or special education teachers.

The recommended administration setting is a general education classroom, special education classroom, or a school office.

SSIS is designed for use with individual students.

SSIS uses a rating scale for the assessment format.

Administration time per student is 15-20 minutes.

Students cannot be rated concurrently.

Alternate forms are available.

Less than 30 minutes of training are required for the rater.

Minimum qualifications of the rater are at least 2 months of supervision/interaction, multiple times per week.

Training manuals and materials are field-tested and included in the cost of the intervention.

Ongoing technical support is available at 800-627-7271.

 

Sensitive to Student Change: Unconvincing Evidence

Levels of Performance Specified: Partially Convincing Evidence

Are levels of performance specified in your manual or published materials?

Yes

Specify the levels of performance:

Behavior Levels

The behavior level represents a type of derived score that indicates the position of an individual’s subscale raw score in relation to the distribution of raw scores in a normative group. Behavior levels consist of three ordered categories with cutpoints based on SD units.

The Below Average level is assigned to all raw scores that fall more than 1 SD below the mean (i.e., standard score < 85). An individual with a Below Average level on a Social Skills subscale exhibits fewer than the average number of social skills for individuals in his or her norm group.

The Average level is assigned to all scores that fall within 1 SD of the mean (i.e., 85 ≤ standard score ≥ 115). An individual with an Average level on a Social Skills subscale exhibits about the same number of social skills as the average individual in his or her norm group.

The Above Average level is assigned to all scores that fall more than 1 SD above the mean (i.e., standard score > 115). An individual with an Above Average level on a Social Skills subscale exhibits more than the average number of social skills for individuals in his or her norm group. 

Describe how the levels of performance are used for progress monitoring:

Behavior levels are broad ranges and were chosen in part because the precision of measurement (i.e., reliability) of the scales does not support finer categories. Also, using broad categories helps differentiate the purpose of subscale scores from scale scores. Subscale scores are used to facilitate the analysis of strengths and weaknesses along with intervention planning. Scale scores, on the other hand, are used for placement and classification decisions, which require using a more precise measurement scale.

In the evaluation of behavior levels, look for patterns of strengths and weaknesses. If one or more Social Skills subscale behavior levels are either Below Average or Above Average, or at least one of the Problem Behaviors subscale behavior levels is Above Average, use the Model of Social Behavioral Strengths and Weaknesses for further analysis. If all subscales are in the Average range, further analysis is not necessary as the individual is demonstrating a typical level of social skills and problem behaviors.

The ASSIST software provides the SSIS Rating Scales validity index summary, score summary, narrative description of score results, intervention planning, and item rating summary effectively and efficiently. This program reports raw scores, standard scores, percentile ranks, and confidence intervals for scales; raw scores and behavior levels for subscales; and a comprehensive item-level analysis sorted by category (e.g., Social Skills Strength, Performance or Acquisition Deficit, and/or Competing Problem Behavior) and by subscale.

The SSIS Rating Scales ASSIST will be particularly helpful for sorting the items to identify target behaviors linked to possible interventions. Because the SSIS Rating Scales can be used to assess change, the SSIS Rating Scales ASSIST software program also generates a Progress Report. This report provides both visual and statistical analysis of changes in an individual’s level of social skills, problem behaviors, and academic competence over time and can accommodate up to five ratings with the same type of form (e.g., five Teacher Form ratings).

Figure 3.7 shows a sample Progress Report with three sets of Social Skills ratings. Standard scores with confidence intervals are presented in the chart. The actual scores are also presented in a table. The table includes the following administration information: (a) rating number, (b) date of rating, and (c) respondent’s name. It also presents important test score information including: (a) scale raw score, (b) standard score, (c) confidence interval, and (d) percentile rank for each administration. The last two columns of the table indicate whether the standard score changed significantly from the first administration (baseline) and whether each standard score is significantly greater than the standard score from the preceding administration. An asterisk indicates a change that is significant at the .05 level.

In measuring progress, it is important to allow enough time between administrations of the SSIS Rating Scales for behavioral changes to occur. When used in conjunction with the SSIS Intervention Guide social skills training program, it is recommended to allow at least four weeks between administrations. The SSIS Intervention Guide includes a progress monitoring tool that can be used more frequently; however, only the SSIS Rating Scales provides a statistical treatment of change.

What is the basis for specifying levels of performance?

Norm-referenced.

If norm-referenced, describe the normative profile:

Representation: National 

Date: March 2006

Number of States: 34 and Puerto Rico

Regions: Northeast, North Central, South, West

Size: 4,700

Gender: 50% Male, 50% Female

Representation of the Norm Sample, by Form, Age, Norm group, and Mother's Education Levela

  Grade 11 or less Grade 12 or GED 1-3 years of college 4 or more years of college  
  Sample  US Sample US Sample US Sample US  
Form, age, and norm group N % Pop.a (%) N % Pop.a (%) N % Pop.a (%) N % Pop.a (%) Total N
Teacher                          
3-5                          
Female 15 15   28 28   27 27   30 30   100
Male 15 15   28 28   28 28   29 29   100
Combined 30 15 14.7 56 28 27.7 55 27.5 28 59 29.5 29.5 200
5-12                          
Female 38 13.8   78 28.4   85 30.9   74 26.9   275
Male 38 13.8   77 28   86 31.3   74 26.9   275
Combined 76 13.8 13.8 155 28.2 27.8 171 31.1 30.2 148 26.9 28.1 550
13-18                          
Female 14 14   31 31   29 29   26 26   100
Male 12 12   30 30   32 32   26 26   100
Combined 26 13 12.8 61 30.5 30.3 61 30.5 30.6 52 26 26.4 200
                           
Parent                          
3-5                          
Female 26 13   57 28.5   57 28.5   60 30   200
Male 29 14.5   55 27.5   58 29   58 29   200
Combined 55 13.8 14.7 112 28 27.7 115 28.8 28 118 29.5 29.5 400
5-12                          
Female 132 13.2   283 28.3   303 30.3   282 28.2   1000
Male 129 12.9   284 28.4   304 30.4   283 28.3   1000
Combined 261 13.1 13.8 567 28.4 27.8 607 30.4 30.2 565 28.3 28.1 2000
13-18                          
Female 26 13   60 30   61 30.5   53 26.5   200
Male 25 12.5   61 30.5   61 30.5   53 26.5   200
Combined 51 12.8 12.8 121 30.3 30.3 122 30.5 30.6 106 26.5 26.4 400
                           
Student                          
8-12                          
Female 34 13.6   71 28.4   76 30.4   69 27.6   250
Male 34 13.6   71 28.4   76 30.4   69 27.6   250
Combined 68 13.6 13.6 142 28.4 28.8 152 30.4 30.4 138 27.6 27.2 500
13-18                          
Female 20 13.3   46 30.7   45 30   39 26   150
Male 18 12   47 31.3   46 30.7   39 26   150
Combined 38 12.7 12.8 93 31 30.3 91 30.3 30.6 78 26 26.4 300

 

Representation of the Norm Sample by Form, Age, Norm Group, and Race/Ethnicity

  African American Hispanic White Othera  
  Sample  US Sample US Sample US Sample US  
Form, age, and norm group N % Pop.a (%) N % Pop.a (%) N % Pop.a (%) N % Pop.a (%) Total N
Teacher                          
3-5                          
Female 16 16   22 22   55 55   7 7   100
Male 16 16   22 22   56 56   6 6   100
Combined 32 16 15.5 44 22 21.9 111 55.5 56.2 13 6.5 6.4 200
5-12                          
Female 43 15.6   55 20   160 58.2   17 6.2   275
Male 43 15.6   55 20   159 57.8   18 6.5   275
Combined 86 15.6 15.5 110 20 20 319 58 58.1 35 6.4 6.4 550
13-18                          
Female 14 14   16 16   63 63   7 7   100
Male 16 16   18 18   60 60   6 6   100
Combined 30 15 15.9 34 17 17.3 123 61.5 60.7 13 6.5 6.1 200
                           
Parent                          
3-5                          
Female 31 15.5   39 19.5   116 58   14 7   200
Male 31 15.5   45 22.5   111 55.5   13 6.5   200
Combined 62 15.5 15.5 84 21 21.9 227 56.8 56.2 27 6.8 6.4 400
5-12                          
Female 157 15.7   200 20   578 57.8   65 6.5   1000
Male 155 15.5   200 20   586 58.6   59 5.9   1000
Combined 312 15.6 15.5 400 20 20 1164 58.2 58.1 124 6.2 6.4 2000
13-18                          
Female 32 16   35 17.5   121 60.5   12 6   200
Male 32 16   35 17.5   121 60.5   12 6   200
Combined 64 16 15.9 70 17.5 17.3 242 60.5 60.7 24 6 6.1 400
                           
Student                          
8-12                          
Female 39 15.6   49 19.6   146 58.4   16 6.4   250
Male 39 15.6   49 19.6   146 58.4   16 6.4   250
Combined 78 15.6 15.5 98 19.6 19.4 292 58.4 58.6 32 6.4 6.4 500
13-18                          
Female 23 15.3   27 18   90 60   10 6.7   150
Male 21 14   27 18   92 61.3   10 6.7   150
Combined 44 14.7 15.9 54 18 17.3 182 60.7 60.7 20 6.7 6.1 300

Note. Row percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding.
aIncludes American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Pacific Islanders, and all other groups not classified as African American, Hispanic, or White.
bData from US Census Bureau (2006). Current Population Survey, March 2006

 

Representation of the Norm Sample, by Educational Classification/Diagnosis and Form, Ages 3-5

  Teacher Form Parent Form  
  Female Male  Combined Female Male Combined  
Educational classification/diagnosis N N N % N N N % US Pop.a (%)
Autism spectrum disorder 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0.8 0.2
Developmental delay 2 2 4 2 3 9 12 3 1.9
Emotional/behavioral disturbance 0 0 0 0 1 5 6 1.5 0.1
Intellectual disabilityb 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0.3 0.2
Specific learning disability 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0.3 0.1
Speech/language impairment 2 3 5 2.5 4 13 17 4.3 2.7
Otherc 0 3 3 1.5 1 7 8 2 0.4

aData from U.S. Department of Education (2004). Twenty-Sixth Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act
bReported as "Mental Retardation" by U.S. Department of Education.
cIncludes deafness/blindness, hearing impairments, multiple disabilities, orthopedic impairments, other health impairments, traumatic brain injury, and visual impairments.

 

Representation of the Norm Sample, by Educational Classifiation/Diagnosis and the Teacher and Parent Forms Ages 5-12, and the Student Form, Ages 8-12

  Ages 5-12   Ages 8-12  
  Teacher Form Parent Form   Student Form  
  Female Male  Combined Female Male Combined   Female Male Combined  
Educational classification/diagnosis N N N % N N N % US Pop.a (%) N N N % US Pop.a (%)
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorderh 6 15 21 4.3 24 58 82 4.6 4.0c,d 10 10 20 4 4.0c,d
Autism spectrum disorder 0 3 3 0.5 3 6 9 0.5 0.3 0 2 2 0.4 0.3
Developmental delaya 1 1 2 0.6 1 5 6 0.5 0.5f 1 0 1 0.5 0.2g
Emotional/behavioral disturbance 0 2 2 0.4 4 8 12 0.6 0.6 0 3 3 0.6 0.8
Gifted/talentedb 18 16 34 6.9 63 63 126 7.1 6.3c,h 16 16 32 6.4 6.3c,h
Intellectual disabilityi 1 3 4 0.7 4 7 11 0.6 0.8 1 3 4 0.8 1
Specific learning disability 12 7 19 3.5 35 40 75 3.8 4 14 15 29 5.8 5.8
Speech/language impairment 8 12 20 3.6 27 46 73 3.7 3.5 5 9 14 2.8 2.8
Otheri 3 4 7 1.3 9 12 21 1.1 1.2 1 3 4 0.8 1.5

aData from U.S. Department of Education (2004). Twenty-Sixth Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act
bAges 6-12 for Teacher and Parent Forms. cAges 6-18.
dData from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1999). Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General.
eAges 5-9 for Teacher and Parent Formsl Ages 8-9 for Student Form. fAges 5-9. gAges 8-9
hData from U.S. Department of Education (2003). Digest of Education Statistics.
iReported as "Mental Retardation" by U.S. Department of Education.
jIncludes deafness/blindness, hearing impairments, multiple disabilities, orthopedic impairments, other health impairments, traumatic brain injury, and visual impairments.

 

Representation of the Norm Sample, by Educational Classification/Diagnosis and Form, Ages 13-18

  Teacher Form Parent Form Student Form  
  Female Male  Combined Female Male Combined Female Male Combined  
Educational classification/diagnosis N N N % N N N % N N N % US Pop.a (%)
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorderh 4 6 10 5 7 9 16 4 6 7 13 4.3 4.0b,c
Autism spectrum disorder 0 1 1 0.5 0 3 3 0.8 0 1 1 0.3 0.1
Emotional/behavioral disturbance 0 2 2 1 0 2 2 0.5 0 4 4 1.3 1.1
Gifted/talented 6 8 14 7 14 11 25 6.3 11 9 20 6.7 6.3b,d
Intellectual disabilityb 1 3 4 2 0 3 3 0.8 1 5 6 2 1.2
Specific learning disability 2 4 6 3 8 16 24 6 8 12 20 6.7 6.4
Speech/language impairment 2 0 2 1 0 2 2 0.5 2 1 3 1 0.4
Otherf 2 3 5 2.5 0 1 1 0.3 1 0 1 0.3 1.3

aData from U.S. Department of Education (2004). Twenty-Sixth Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act
bAges 6-18.
cData from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1999). Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General.
dData from U.S. Department of Education (2003). Digest of Education Statistics.
eReported as "Mental Retardation" by U.S. Department of Education.
fIncludes deafness/blindness, hearing impairments, multiple disabilities, orthopedic impairments, other health impairments, traumatic brain injury, and visual impairments.

Data to Support Intervention Change: Data Unavailable

Data to Support Intervention Choice: Unconvincing Evidence

Are validated decision rules for what intervention(s) to select specified in your manual or published materials?

Yes.

Reliability: Partially Convincing Evidence

Subscales: Academic Competence

Form: Teacher Form

Age Range: 3-5, 5-12, 13-18

Internal Consistency Reliability: Coefficient Alpha for the Teacher Form Scales and Subscales, by Age and Norm Group

Teacher Form Ages 3-5   Ages 5-12   Ages 13-18
  Female Male Combined   Female Male Combined   Female Male Combined
Social Skills 0.96 0.97 0.97   0.96 0.97 0.97   0.97 0.97 0.97
Communication 0.84 0.85 0.85   0.85 0.85 0.86   0.86 0.85 0.86
Cooperation 0.89 0.9 0.9   0.9 0.92 0.91   0.89 0.9 0.9
Assertion 0.83 0.89 0.87   0.82 0.84 0.83   0.88 0.87 0.87
Responsibility 0.9 0.9 0.9   0.91 0.9 0.91   0.88 0.9 0.9
Empathy 0.86 0.88 0.88   0.89 0.93 0.92   0.93 0.88 0.91
Engagement 0.84 0.91 0.89   0.81 0.85 0.84   0.9 0.87 0.89
Self-Control 0.86 0.92 0.9   0.89 0.91 0.9   0.94 0.91 0.93
                       
Problem Behaviors 0.94 0.94 0.94   0.94 0.95 0.95   0.95 0.96 0.96
Externalizing 0.93 0.93 0.93   0.94 0.93 0.93   0.95 0.93 0.94
Bullying 0.74 0.76 0.75   0.74 0.79 0.78   0.73 0.75 0.75
Hyperactivity/Inattention 0.88 0.91 0.9   0.9 0.9 0.9   0.88 0.89 0.89
Internalizing 0.78 0.83 0.81   0.82 0.83 0.83   0.9 0.9 0.9
Autism Spectrum 0.84 0.89 0.88   0.87 0.89 0.88   0.87 0.87 0.87
                       
Academic Competence - - -   0.97 0.97 0.97   0.97 0.94 0.96
Median scale reliability 0.95 0.96 0.96   0.96 0.97 0.97   0.97 0.96 0.96
Median subscale reliability 0.85 0.9 0.89   0.88 0.9 0.89   0.89 0.89 0.9

Demographic Characteristics of Interrater Reliability Study Samples, by Form

Characteristic Teacher Form Parent Form Student Form
N 144 115 127
       
Age      
Mean (years:months) 9:00 8:00 11:07
SD (months) 50.4 50.8 26.9
       
Sex      
Female 60 54 72
Male 84 61 55
       
Race/ethnicity      
African American 14 15 15
Hispanic 18 6 7
White 96 85 96
Othera 16 9 9
       
Mother'sb education      
Grade 11 or less 20 6 8
Grade 12 or GED 52 15 31
1-3 years of college 42 45 44
4 or more years of college 30 49 44
       
Region      
Northeast 18 47 16
North Central 45 43 48
South 53 13 45
West 28 12 18
       
Test interval (days)      
Range 2-87 27-87 43-84
Mean  42.6 60.6 65.7

aIncludes American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Pacific Islanders, and all other groups not classified as African American, Hispanic, or White.
bIf mother's or female guardian's education level was not reported, father's or male guardian's education level was used.

 

Subscales: Academic Competence

Form: Teacher Form

Age Range: 3-18

Test-retest Reliability Coefficients for Scales and Subscales for the Teacher Form, Ages 3-18

    Rater 1 Rater 2 Average differencea Correlation
Scale and subscale N Mean SD Mean SD   Adj rb
Social Skills 144 100.6 16.2 99.7 16.1 -0.9 0.84 0.82
Communication 144 16.1 3.7 15.9 3.8 -0.2 0.76 0.76
Cooperation 144 13.3 3.7 13.4 4 0.1 0.86 0.85
Assertion 144 12.6 5 12.5 4.7 -0.1 0.74 0.68
Responsibility 144 14 3.6 13.5 3.8 -0.5 0.82 0.83
Empathy 144 12.3 4.1 11.8 3.8 -0.5 0.78 0.75
Engagement 144 14.5 4.2 14.6 4.3 0.1 0.83 0.8
Self-Control 144 13.7 5.5 13.9 5.6 0.2 0.86 0.81
                 
Problem Behaviors 144 97.9 13.8 98 14.4 0.1 0.81 0.83
Externalizing 144 4.3 5.8 4.2 6.3 -0.1 0.84 0.86
Bullying 144 1.2 2.2 1.1 2.1 -0.1 0.75 0.76
Hyperactivity/Inattention 144 3.9 4.1 3.8 4.5 -0.1 0.82 0.84
Internalizing 144 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.6 0 0.81 0.82
Autism Spectrum 144 8 6 8.2 6.3 0.2 0.85 0.85
                 
Academic Competencec 96 101.2 15.9 100.9 15.8 -0.3 0.93 0.92
Median scale reliability             0.84 0.83
Median subscale reliability             0.82 0.81

Note. Units are raw scores for subscales and standard scoers for scales.
aDifference equals mean from second administration minus mean from first administration
bAll reliability coefficients were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p. 58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample obtained on the first testing.
cAges 5-18

 

Demographic Characteristics of Interrater Reliability Study Samples, by Form

Characteristic Teacher Form Parent Form
N 54 110
     
Age    
Mean (years:months) 8:7 9:0
SD (months) 40.1 49.6
     
Sex    
Female 32 44
Male 22 66
     
Race/ethnicity    
African American 11 10
Hispanic 12 8
White 25 87
Othera 6 5
     
Mother'sb education    
Grade 11 or less 7 5
Grade 12 or GED 24 28
1-3 years of college 13 46
4 or more years of college 10 31
     
Region    
Northeast 1 32
North Central 13 34
South 20 24
West 20 20
     
Test interval (days)    
Range 0-76 0-86
Mean  63 57.7

aIncludes American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Pacific Islanders, and all other groups not classified as African American, Hispanic, or White.
bIf mother's or female guardian's education level was not reported, father's or male guardian's education level was used.

 

Interrater Reliability Coefficients for Scales and Subscales for the Teacher Form, Ages 3-18

    Rater 1 Rater 2 Average difference Correlation
Scale and subscale N Mean SD Mean SD   Adj rb
Social Skills 54 100.4 16.6 97.2 14.9 -3.2 0.7 0.68
Communication 54 15.6 4.1 14.7 3.9 -0.9 0.63 0.6
Cooperation 54 13.1 3.6 12.7 3.2 -0.4 0.6 0.62
Assertion 54 12.6 4.5 11.9 4.3 -0.7 0.38 0.36
Responsibility 54 13.6 3.7 13 3 -0.6 0.54 0.58
Empathy 54 12.2 3.6 11.6 3.4 -0.6 0.55 0.57
Engagement 54 14.4 4.2 13.8 3.9 -0.6 0.71 0.69
Self-Control 54 14.1 4.9 13.2 4 -0.9 0.62 0.62
                 
Problem Behaviors 54 98.2 13 103.7 14 5.5 0.57 0.61
Externalizing 54 4.9 5.3 6.4 6.1 1.5 0.53 0.56
Bullying 54 0.8 1.3 1.7 2.3 0.9 0.46 0.54
Hyperactivity/Inattention 54 4.4 4.2 5.7 4.2 1.3 0.56 0.58
Internalizing 54 3.7 3.4 4.4 3.6 0.7 0.5 0.48
Autism Spectrum 54 8.2 6 10.6 6.1 2.4 0.69 0.69
                 
Academic Competence 45 100.2 16.4 99.8 15.2 -0.4 0.62 0.6
Median scale reliability             0.62 0.61
Median subscale reliability             0.56 0.58

Note. Units are raw scores for subscales and standard scores for scales.
aDifference equals mean from second administration minus mean from first administration
bAll reliability coefficients were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p. 58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample obtained on the first testing.
cAges 5-18

Validity: Unconvincing Evidence

Subscale: Academic Competence

Form: Teacher Form

Age Range: 3-5, 5-12, 13-18

Item-Total Correlations for Scales and Subscales for the Teacher Form, by Age

  Ages
Subscale and Item 3-5 5-12 13-18
Academic Competence      
Compared with other students in my classroom, the overall academic performance of this student is: - 0.94 0.89
In reading, how does this student compare with other students? - 0.89 0.88
In mathematics, how does this student compare with other students? - 0.88 0.83
In terms of grade-level expectations, this student's skills in reading are: - 0.9 0.86
In terms of grade-level expectations, this student's skills in mathematics are: - 0.89 0.82
This student's overall motivation to succeed academically is: - 0.77 0.78
Compared with other students in my classroom, this student's intellectual functioning is: - 0.88 0.88

 

Subscale: Academic Competence

Form: Teacher Form

Age Range: 5-18

Raw Score Means and Standard Deviations of the Norm Sample for the Teacher Form Academic Competence Scale, by Age and Sex

    Academic Competence
Age and sex N Mean SD
5      
Female 28 17.2 6.7
Male 24 18 7.3
6      
Female 38 16 8.8
Male 46 16.5 7.9
7      
Female 33 19.6 6.4
Male 37 17.2 6.6
8      
Female 36 17.5 6.8
Male 39 17.2 7.3
9      
Female 34 17.2 7
Male 31 17 6.5
10      
Female 32 17.5 7.7
Male 36 17.8 9
11      
Female 37 18.2 6.6
Male 30 16.2 8.9
12      
Female 34 19.2 6.6
Male 29 18.8 5.9
13      
Female 26 19.5 7.2
Male 29 20.1 5.5
14      
Female 22 20.1* 6.6
Male 16 15 5.5
15      
Female 15 18.9 4.3
Male 11 18 5.7
16      
Female 15 19.9 7.4
Male 16 20.5 5.8
17      
Female 15 19.5 7.6
Male 17 16.7 6
18      
Female 7 19.3 6.3
Male 11 16.6 7

Note. Asterisk indicates a statistically significant sex difference favoring the sex indicated (two-tailed t test).
*p<.05.

 

Subscale: Academic Competence

Form: Teacher Form, Parent Form

Age Range: 3-18

Correlations of Scale and Subscale Scores Across the Teacher and Parent Forms

  Teacher Form
Parent Form scale and subscale Academic Competencea
Social Skills 0.17
Communication 0.15
Cooperation 0.22
Assertion 0.1
Responsibility 0.23
Empathy 0.12
Engagement 0.06
Self-Control 0.15
   
Problem Behaviors -0.19
Externalizing -0.14
Bullying -0.07
Hyperactivity/Inattention -0.24
Internalizing -0.1
Autism Spectrum -0.22

N = 723
Note. Scores for scales are standard scores. Scores for subscales are raw scores.
aN = 722.

 

Subscale: Academic Competence

Form: Teacher Form, Parent Form

Age Range: 13-18

Correlations of Scale and Subscale Scores Across the Teacher and Parent Forms

  Teacher Form
Parent Form scale and subscale Academic Competencea
Social Skills 0.17
Communication 0.15
Cooperation 0.22
Assertion 0.1
Responsibility 0.23
Empathy 0.12
Engagement 0.06
Self-Control 0.15
   
Problem Behaviors -0.19
Externalizing -0.14
Bullying -0.07
Hyperactivity/Inattention -0.24
Internalizing -0.1
Autism Spectrum -0.22

N = 723
Note. Scores for scales are standard scores. Scores for subscales are raw scores.
aN = 722.

 

Subscale: Academic Competence

Form: Teacher Form, Parent Form

Age Range: 8-12

Correlations of Scale and Subscale Scores Across the Teacher and Student Forms, Ages 8-12

  Teacher Form
Student Form scale and subscale Academic Competence
Social Skills 0.24
Communication 0.17
Cooperation 0.27
Assertion 0.11
Responsibility 0.33
Empathy 0.22
Engagement 0.08
Self-Control 0.19
   
Problem Behaviors -0.22
Externalizing -0.23
Bullying -0.21
Hyperactivity/Inattention -0.25
Internalizing -0.1

N = 280.
Note. Scores for scales are standard scores. Scores for subscales are raw scores.

 

Subscale: Academic Competence

Form: Teacher Form, Parent Form

Age Range: 13-18

Correlations of Scale and Subscale Scores Across the Teacher and Student Forms, Ages 13-18

  Teacher Form
Student Form scale and subscale Academic Competence
Social Skills 0.15
Communication 0.14
Cooperation 0.15
Assertion 0.01
Responsibility 0.21
Empathy 0.17
Engagement 0.16
Self-Control 0.04
   
Problem Behaviors -0.08
Externalizing -0.07
Bullying -0.05
Hyperactivity/Inattention -0.14
Internalizing -0.07

Demographic Characteristics of Samples Used for Correlations With the SSRS

  SSRS
  Teacher Parent Student
Characteristic Preschool Elementary Secondary Preschool Elementary Secondary Elementary Secondary
N 98 146 75 118 126 114 139 85
                 
Age                
Mean (years:months) 4:5 9:2 14:7 4:1 8:7 14:9 10:5 14:11
SD (months) 8 25 16.2 8 25 18.1 15.4 20.8
                 
Sex                
Female 49 79 41 59 52 64 69 44
Male 49 67 34 59 74 50 70 41
                 
Race/ethnicity                
African American 3 33 9 6 6 7 14 8
Hispanic 11 27 6 4 3 9 17 4
White 76 73 52 102 112 97 100 66
Othera 8 13 8 6 5 1 8 7
                 
Mother'seducation                
Grade 11 or less 5 16 4 4 4 2 11 4
Grade 12 or GED 11 52 23 18 34 29 46 16
1-3 years of college 29 50 26 41 43 41 46 35
4 or more years of college 53 28 22 55 45 42 36 30
                 
Region                
Northeast 7 11 9 11 45 30 9 21
North Central 64 28 19 46 41 38 54 36
South 27 66 17 47 34 26 57 6
West 0 41 30 14 6 20 19 22
                 
Test interval (days)                
Range 0-64 30-72 0-89 23-87 32-90 29-88 56-89 26-86
Mean  17 53.4 29.2 61.4 60.2 63.1 68 60.7

Note. SSRS = Social Skills Rating System.
aIncludes American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Pacific Islanders, and all other groups not classified as African American, Hispanic, or White.
bIf mother's or female guardian's education level was not reported, father's or male guardian's education level was used.

 

Subscale: Academic Competence

Form: Teacher Form

Age Range: 5-12

Correlations of the SSIS Teacher Form Scale and Subscale Scores With the SSRS Teacher Elementary Form Scale and Subscale Scores, Ages 5-12

SSRS Teacher Elementary Form Academic Comeptence SSRS
  r Adj ra Mean SD
Social Skills 0.53 0.51 104 15.4
Cooperation 0.6 0.58 15.5 4.4
Assertion 0.39 0.37 13.4 4.4
Self-Control 0.3 0.29 15.5 3.9
         
Problem Behaviors -0.38 -0.36 96.6 13.2
Externalizing -0.13 -0.12 1.5 2.5
Bullying -0.28 -0.27 2.4 2.4
Hyperactivity -0.45 -0.43 3 3
Academic Competence 0.88 0.87 96.6 13.4
SSIS Mean 99.4      
SSIS SD 15.6      

N = 146.
Note. Correlations are based on scale standard scores and subscale raw scores for both SSIS and SSRS.
aAll correlations were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p.58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample.

 

Subscale: Academic Competence

Form: Teacher Form

Age Range: 13-18

Correlations of the SSIS Teacher Form Scale and Subscale Scores With the SSRS Teacher Secondary Form Scale and Subscale Scores, Ages 13-18

SSRS Teacher Elementary Form Academic Comeptence SSRS
  r Adj ra Mean SD
Social Skills 0.46 0.49 106.5 14.8
Cooperation 0.49 0.52 16.7 4
Assertion 0.42 0.44 13.7 4.9
Self-Control 0.43 0.45 16.1 3.5
         
Problem Behaviors -0.33 -0.35 96.8 13
Externalizing -0.34 -0.36 1.5 2.4
Internalizing -0.25 -0.27 2.8 2.9
         
Academic Competence 0.88 0.89 98.3 11.2
SSIS Mean 99.4      
SSIS SD 14.1      

N = 75.
Note. Correlations are based on scale standard scores and subscale raw scores for both SSIS and SSRS.
aAll correlations were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p.58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample.

Demographic Characteristics of Samples Used for Correlations With the BASC-2

  BASC-2
  TRS PRS SRP
Characteristic Preschool Child Adolescent Preschool Child Adolescent Child Adolescent
N 16 41 16 16 43 20 34 19
                 
Age                
Mean (years:months) 4:4 9:5 15:3 4:1 8:9 15:0 10:0 16:1
SD (months) 8.8 19.9 19.8 8.7 17.8 13.8 12.5 19.5
                 
Sex                
Female 7 21 8 9 26 11 17 10
Male 9 20 8 7 17 9 17 9
                 
Race/ethnicity                
African American 0 8 0 2 4 3 9 2
Hispanic 2 4 2 1 1 2 3 2
White 13 24 11 11 34 14 15 11
Othera 1 5 3 2 4 1 7 4
                 
Mother'sb education                
Grade 11 or less 0 4 2 1 2 2 1 1
Grade 12 or GED 7 14 6 3 7 4 14 6
1-3 years of college 4 16 7 7 16 8 10 6
4 or more years of college 5 7 1 5 18 6 9 6
                 
Region                
Northeast 2 5 0 4 9 5 11 4
North Central 3 20 10 6 13 5 10 6
South 7 15 1 2 13 6 8 3
West 4 1 5 4 8 4 5 6
                 
Test interval (days)                
Range 23-71 30-63 19-87 23-90 29-84 40-81 27-88 46-79
Mean  41.4 50 52.2 70.9 61.3 62 61 64.1

Note. BASC-2 TRS = Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition, Teacher Rating Scales; BASC-2 PRS =  Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition.
Parent Rating Scales; BASC-2 SRP = Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition, Self-Report of Personality.
aIncludes American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Pacific Islanders, and all other groups not classified as African American, Hispanic, or White.
bIf mother's or female guardian's education level was not reported, father's or male guardian's education level was used.

 

Subscale: Academic Competence

Form: Teacher Form

Age Range: 5-12

Correlations of the SSIS Teacher Form Scale and Subscale Scores With the BASC-2 TRS-C Composite and Scale Scores, Ages 5-12

BASC-2 TRS-C Academic Competence BASC-2 TRS-C
  r Adj ra Mean SD
Composite         
Externalizing Problems -0.38 -0.38 47.2 8.2
Internalizing Problems -0.47 -0.47 48.9 11
School Problems -0.78 -0.78 48.4 10
Adaptive Skills 0.68 0.68 55.3 10.3
Behavioral Symptoms Index -0.63 -0.63 47.7 9.6
         
Scale        
Hyperactivity -0.4 -0.4 48 8.8
Aggression -0.32 -0.32 47.4 8.2
Conduct Problems -0.3 -0.3 46.6 7.7
Anxiety -0.36 -0.36 49.4 8.8
Depression -0.61 -0.61 49.6 10.1
Somatization -0.26 -0.26 48.5 11.8
Attention Problems -0.62 -0.62 47.1 9.7
Learning Problems -0.78 -0.78 50 10.5
Atypicality -0.57 -0.57 47.8 8.5
Withdrawal -0.51 -0.51 49 11.8
Adaptability 0.58 0.58 56.1 8.9
Social Skills 0.37 0.37 55.1 10.5
Leadership 0.69 0.69 55.4 11.4
Study Skills 0.71 0.71 54.3 9.6
Functional Communication 0.73 0.73 53 9.3
         
SSIS Mean 98.3      
SSIS SD 14.7      

N = 41.
Note. Correlations are based on scale standard scores and subscale raw scores for SSIS and composite and scale T scores for BASC-2.
aAll correlations were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p.58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample.

 

Subscale: Academic Competence

Form: Teacher Form

Age Range: 13-18

Correlations of the SSIS Teacher Form Scale and Subscale Scores With the BASC-2 TRS-A Composite and Scale Scores, Ages 13-18

BASC-2 TRS-A Academic Competence BASC-2 TRS-A
  r Adj ra Mean SD
Composite         
Externalizing Problems -0.57 -0.62 52.6 11.1
Internalizing Problems -0.31 -0.34 54.9 12.4
School Problems -0.62 -0.67 52.9 11.5
Adaptive Skills 0.64 0.68 52.8 10.6
Behavioral Symptoms Index -0.55 -0.6 54.7 11.8
         
Scale        
Hyperactivity -0.44 -0.48 54.6 10.7
Aggression -0.53 -0.58 51.2 9.5
Conduct Problems -0.58 -0.63 51.4 13.9
Anxiety -0.21 -0.24 52.5 8.2
Depression -0.4 -0.44 55.6 11.8
Somatization -0.2 -0.22 54.7 14.8
Attention Problems -0.55 -0.6 53.6 11
Learning Problems -0.66 -0.7 51.7 10.7
Atypicality -0.43 -0.47 53.9 12.6
Withdrawal -0.37 -0.41 52.9 13.1
Adaptability 0.3 0.33 50.1 10.6
Social Skills 0.55 0.6 53.8 8.6
Leadership 0.73 0.77 53.3 11.2
Study Skills 0.74 0.78 52.4 11
Functional Communication 0.55 0.6 52.1 10
         
SSIS Mean 97.2      
SSIS SD 13.4      

N = 16.
Note. Correlations are based on scale standard scores and subscale raw scores for SSIS and composite and scale T scores for BASC-2.
aAll correlations were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p.58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample.

 

Demographic Characteristics of Samples Used for Correlations With the Vineland-II, SSCSA, and HCSBS Tests

  Vineland-II SSCSA  
Characteristic TRF Survey Parent/Caregiver Elementary Adolescent HCSBS
N 54 43 29 10 57
           
Age          
Mean (years:months) 9:7 8:11 8:2 14:6 10:8
SD (months) 43.1 49.5 21.5 16.5 39.4
           
Sex          
Female 32 16 13 5 32
Male 22 27 16 5 25
           
Race/ethnicity          
African American 5 3 6 1 8
Hispanic 1 2 6 3 0
White 45 37 17 4 47
Othera 3 1 0 2 2
           
Mother's education          
Grade 11 or less 4 3 4 2 1
Grade 12 or GED 20 5 10 1 12
1-3 years of college 14 12 14 4 23
4 or more years of college 16 23 1 3 21
           
Region          
Northeast 1 13 0 5 27
North Central 38 15 4 0 10
South 15 9 19 0 8
West 0 6 6 5 12
           
Test interval (days)          
Range 21-82 31-81 19-76 0-32 22-89
Mean  49.8 57.9 45.6 9.1 58.9

Note. Vineland-II TRF = Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition, Teacher Rating Form; SSCSA = The Walker McConnell Scale of Social Competence and School Adjustment; HCSBS = Home & Community Social Behavior Scales.
aIncludes American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Pacific Islanders, and all other groups not classified as African American, Hispanic, or White.
bIf mother's or female guardian's education level was not reported, father's or male guardian's education level was used.

 

Subscale: Academic Competence

Form: Teacher Form

Age Range: 3-18

Correlations of the SSIS Teacher Form Scale and Subscale Scores With the Vineland-II TRF Domain, Subdomain, and Adaptive Behavior Composite Scores

Vineland-II TRF Academic Competence Vineland-II TRF
  r Adj ra Mean SD
Communication 0.76b 0.75b 107 12.6
Receptive 0.57b 0.56b 15.6 2.1
Expressive 0.54b 0.53b 16 1.9
Written 0.78b 0.77b 16.8 2.4
         
Daily Living Skills 0.64b 0.63b 105.9 14.5
Personal 0.39b 0.38b 15.2 1.7
Academic 0.52b 0.51b 16.1 2.6
School Community 0.65b 0.64b    
         
Socialization 0.51b 0.50b 105.4 15.1
Interpresonal Relationships 0.43b 0.42b 16.4 2.8
Play and Leisure Time 0.33b 0.32b 15.3 2.6
Coping Skills 0.57b 0.56b 15.8 2.5
         
Motor Skills 0.66d 0.65d 104c 14.4c
Gross 0.79d 0.78d 15.2c 2.4c
Fine 0.38d 0.37d 15.6c 2.5c
         
Adaptive Behavior Composite 0.68b 0.67b 107.4 15.2
         
SSIS Mean 100.5b      
SSIS SD 15.4b      

N = 54.
Note. Correlations are based on scale standard scores and subscale raw scores for SSIS and domain standard scores, subdomain v-scale scores, and composite standard scores for Vineland-II TRF.
aAll correlations were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p.58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample. bAges 5–18; N = 44. cAges 0–6; N = 17. dAges 5–6; N = 7. 

 

Subscale: Academic Competence

Form: Teacher Form

Age Range: 5-12

Correlations of the SSIS Teacher Form Scale and Subscale Scores With the SSCSA Elementary Version Subscale and Total Scale Scores, Ages 5–12

SSCSA Elementary Version Academic Competence SSCSA
  r Adj ra Mean SD
Teacher-Preferred Social Behavior 0.19 0.16 10.6 2.4
Peer-Preferred Social Behavior 0.39 0.34 10.8 2.7
School Adjustment Behavior 0.64 0.58 10.2 2.3
         
Total Scale 0.44 0.39 103.2 12.1
SSIS Mean 99.1      
SSIS SD 17.2      

N = 29.
Note. Correlations are based on scale standard scores and subscale raw scores for SSIS and subscale scores and total scale standard scores for SSCSA.
aAll correlations were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p.58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample. 

 

Subscale: Academic Competence

Form: Teacher Form

Age Range: 13-18

Correlations of the SSIS Teacher Form Scale and Subscale Scores With the SSCSA Adolescent Version Subscale and Total Scale Scores, Ages 13–18

SSCSA Adolescent Version Academic Competence SSCSA
  r Adj ra Mean SD
Self-Control 0.69 0.72 10.4 4.3
Peer Relations 0.69 0.72 10 4
School Adjustment 0.68 0.71 10.5 3.8
Empathy 0.63 0.66 10.9 3.6
         
Total Scale 0.67 0.7 104.2 22.1
SSIS Mean 94      
SSIS SD 13.9      

N = 10.
Note. Correlations are based on scale standard scores and subscale raw scores for SSIS and subscale scores and total scale standard scores for SSCSA.
aAll correlations were corrected for restriction of range using the variability correction of Cohen et al. (2003, p.58), where the numerator is the standard deviation of the SSIS norm group and the denominator is the standard deviation of the SSIS sample. 

 

Disaggregated Reliability and Validity Data: Partially Convincing Evidence

Disaggregated Reliability

Subscale: Academic Competence

Form: Teacher Form

Age Range: 3-5, 5-12, 13-18

Internal Consistency Reliability: Coefficient Alpha for the Teacher Form Scales and Subscales, by Age and Norm Group

Teacher Form Ages 3-5   Ages 5-12   Ages 13-18
  Female Male Combined   Female Male Combined   Female Male Combined
Social Skills 0.96 0.97 0.97   0.96 0.97 0.97   0.97 0.97 0.97
Communication 0.84 0.85 0.85   0.85 0.85 0.86   0.86 0.85 0.86
Cooperation 0.89 0.9 0.9   0.9 0.92 0.91   0.89 0.9 0.9
Assertion 0.83 0.89 0.87   0.82 0.84 0.83   0.88 0.87 0.87
Responsibility 0.9 0.9 0.9   0.91 0.9 0.91   0.88 0.9 0.9
Empathy 0.86 0.88 0.88   0.89 0.93 0.92   0.93 0.88 0.91
Engagement 0.84 0.91 0.89   0.81 0.85 0.84   0.9 0.87 0.89
Self-Control 0.86 0.92 0.9   0.89 0.91 0.9   0.94 0.91 0.93
                       
Problem Behaviors 0.94 0.94 0.94   0.94 0.95 0.95   0.95 0.96 0.96
Externalizing 0.93 0.93 0.93   0.94 0.93 0.93   0.95 0.93 0.94
Bullying 0.74 0.76 0.75   0.74 0.79 0.78   0.73 0.75 0.75
Hyperactivity/Inattention 0.88 0.91 0.9   0.9 0.9 0.9   0.88 0.89 0.89
Internalizing 0.78 0.83 0.81   0.82 0.83 0.83   0.9 0.9 0.9
Autism Spectrum 0.84 0.89 0.88   0.87 0.89 0.88   0.87 0.87 0.87
                       
Academic Competence - - -   0.97 0.97 0.97   0.97 0.94 0.96
Median scale reliability 0.95 0.96 0.96   0.96 0.97 0.97   0.97 0.96 0.96
Median subscale reliability 0.85 0.9 0.89   0.88 0.9 0.89   0.89 0.89 0.9
 

 

Disaggregated Validity

Special-Population Samples for the Teacher Form by Age, Sex, Race/Ethnicity, and Mother’s Education Level

      Sex 
      Female Male
Study group Age N N % N %
Autism spectrum disorder 3-14 41 9 22 32 78
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 4-17 30 11 36.7 19 63.3
Developmental delay 3-7 16 5 31.3 11 68.8
Emotional/behavioral disturbance 4-17 9 1 11.1 8 88.9
Gifted/talented 7-18 38 19 50 19 50
Intellectual disability 6-18 14 4 28.6 10 71.4
Specific learning disability 5-17 23 14 60.9 9 39.1
Speech/language impairment 3-17 49 17 34.7 32 65.3
      Race/Ethnicity
      African American Hispanic White Otherb
Study group Age N N % N % N % N %
Autism spectrum disorder 3-14 41 5 12.2 3 7.3 32 78 1 2.4
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 4-17 30 5 16.7 4 13.3 17 56.7 4 13.3
Developmental delay 3-7 16 5 31.3 4 25 6 37.5 1 6.3
Emotional/behavioral disturbance 4-17 9 2 22.2 3 33.3 4 44.4 0 0
Gifted/talented 7-18 38 2 5.3 5 13.2 17 44.7 14 36.8
Intellectual disability 6-18 14 3 21.4 5 35.7 5 35.7 1 7.1
Specific learning disability 5-17 23 7 30.4 6 26.1 8 34.8 2 8.7
Speech/language impairment 3-17 49 12 24.5 12 24.5 22 44.9 3 6.1
      Mother'sa education level
      Grade 11 or less Grade 12 or GED 1-3 years of college 4 or more years of college
Study group Age N N % N % N % N %
Autism spectrum disorder 3-14 41 4 9.8 6 14.6 16 39 15 36.6
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 4-17 30 8 26.7 8 26.7 7 23.3 7 23.3
Developmental delay 3-7 16 4 25 2 12.5 5 31.3 5 31.3
Emotional/behavioral disturbance 4-17 9 2 22.2 2 22.2 4 44.4 1 11.1
Gifted/talented 7-18 38 2 5.3 9 23.7 12 31.6 15 39.5
Intellectual disability 6-18 14 7 50 3 21.4 4 28.6 0 0
Specific learning disability 5-17 23 9 39.1 5 21.7 8 34.8 1 4.3
Speech/language impairment 3-17 49 12 24.5 13 26.5 14 28.6 10 20.4

aIf mother’s or female guardian’s education level was not reported, father’s or male guardian’s education level was used.
bIncludes American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Pacific Islanders, and all other groups not classified as African American, Hispanic, or White.
cReported as “Mental Retardation” by U.S. Department of Education.

 

Subscale: Academic Competence

Form: Teacher Form, Parent Form, Student Form

Age Range: 3-18

Autism Spectrum Disorder Sample: Mean and Standard Deviation of Scale Standard Scores and Subscale Raw Scores With Comparison to Nonclinical Reference Group, by Form

Form, scale, and subscale N Mean SD Difference from nonclinical reference groupa
Teacher        
Academic Competenceb 30 85.9 14.5 -14.6***

aAdjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, and education level to match nonclinical reference group proportions.
bAdministered ages 5–18.
*p<.05. **p<.01. ***p<.001.

 

Subscale: Academic Competence

Form: Teacher Form, Parent Form, Student Form

Age Range: 3-18

ADHD Sample: Mean and Standard Deviation of Scale Standard Scores and Subscale Raw Scores With Comparison to Nonclinical Reference Group, by Form

Form, scale, and subscale N Mean SD Difference from nonclinical reference groupa
Teacher        
Academic Competenceb 29 80.9 14 -19.0***

aAdjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, and education level to match nonclinical reference group proportions.
bAdministered ages 5–18.
*p<.05. **p<.01. ***p<.001.

 

Subscale: Academic Competence

Form: Teacher Form, Parent Form, 

Age Range: 3-18

Developmental Delay Sample: Mean and Standard Deviation of Scale Standard Scores and Subscale Raw Scores With Comparison to Nonclinical Reference Group, by Form

Form, scale, and subscale N Mean SD Difference from nonclinical reference groupa
Teacher        
Academic Competenceb 5 68.4 6.7 -27.0***

aAdjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, and education level to match nonclinical reference group proportions.
bAdministered ages 5–18.
*p<.05. **p<.01. ***p<.001.

 

Subscale: Academic Competence

Form: Teacher Form, Parent Form, Student Form

Age Range: 3-18

Emotional/Behavioral Disturbance Sample: Mean and Standard Deviation of Scale Standard Scores and Subscale Raw Scores With Comparison to Nonclinical Reference Group, by Form

Form, scale, and subscale N Mean SD Difference from nonclinical reference groupa
Teacher        
Academic Competenceb 7 94.1 18.5 -3.1

aAdjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, and education level to match nonclinical reference group proportions.
bAdministered ages 5–18.
*p<.05. **p<.01. ***p<.001.

 

Subscale: Academic Competence

Form: Teacher Form, Parent Form, Student Form

Age Range: 3-18

Gifted/Talented Sample: Mean and Standard Deviation of Scale Standard Scores and Subscale Raw Scores With Comparison to Nonclinical Reference Group, by Form

Form, scale, and subscale N Mean SD Difference from nonclinical reference groupa
Teacher        
Academic Competenceb 38 109 12.4 7.4**

aAdjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, and education level to match nonclinical reference group proportions.
*p<.05. **p<.01. ***p<.001.

 

Subscale: Academic Competence

Form: Teacher Form, Parent Form, Student Form

Age Range: 3-18

Intellectual Disabilitya Sample: Mean and Standard Deviation of Scale Standard Scores and Subscale Raw Scores With Comparison to Nonclinical Reference Group, by Form

Form, scale, and subscale N Mean SD Difference from nonclinical reference groupa
Teacher        
Academic Competenceb 14 73.1 10.7 -22.8***

aReported as “Mental Retardation” by U.S. Department of Education.
bAdjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, and education level to match nonclinical reference group proportions.
*p<.05. **p<.01. ***p<.001.

 

Subscale: Academic Competence

Form: Teacher Form, Parent Form, Student Form

Age Range: 3-18

Specific Learning Disability Sample: Mean and Standard Deviation of Scale Standard Scores and Subscale Raw Scores With Comparison to Nonclinical Reference Group, by Form

Form, scale, and subscale N Mean SD Difference from nonclinical reference groupa
Teacher        
Academic Competence 22 87.2 16.5 -9.8**

aAdjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, and education level to match nonclinical reference group proportions.
*p<.05. **p<.01. ***p<.001.

 

Subscale: Academic Competence

Form: Teacher Form, Parent Form, Student Form

Age Range: 3-18

Speech/Language Impairment Sample: Mean and Standard Deviation of Scale Standard Scores and Subscale Raw Scores With Comparison to Nonclinical Reference Group, by Form

Form, scale, and subscale N Mean SD Difference from nonclinical reference groupa
Teacher        
Academic Competenceb 31 77.8 13.4 -20.2***

aAdjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, and education level to match nonclinical reference group proportions.
bAdministered ages 5–18.
*p<.05. **p<.01. ***p<.001.

 

Assessment Format: Rating scale

Rater / Scorer: General Education Teacher, Special Education Teacher, Parent, Child

Usability Study Conducted: Yes

The SSIS Rating Scales has been in use in schools since it published in 2008. The SSIS is a revision of the widely used Social Skills Rating System (SSRS), which has been used in classrooms since it published in 1990.

Readability Study

The reading level of both the items and the instructions of the Teacher, Parent, and Student Forms was analyzed using the Flesch Grade Level Index. This index measures readability in terms of sentence length and number of syllables per word and expresses readability in grade levels. The Teacher Form reading grade level is 6.8, the Parent Form is 5.3, and that of each of the Student Forms is lower than Grade 2.

Readability by Form

Teacher - 6.8

Parent - 5.3

Student (Ages 8-12) - 1.8

Student (Ages 13-18) - 1.9