National Center on Intensive Intervention at American Institutes for Research

Academic Intervention

Title Study Study Type Participants Design Fidelity of Impl. Measures (Targeted) Measures (Broader) No. Outcome Measures Mean ES (Targeted) Mean ES (Broader) Visual Analysis Disag. Data for Dem. Subgroups Disag. Data for <20th percentile Administration Group Size Duration of Intervention Minimum Interventionist Requirements Reviewed by WWC or E-ESSA Other Research: Potentially Eligible for NCII Review
Academy of MATH Torlaković (2011) Group Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence 4 Math 0.58* 0.29 N/A No No Individual
Small Group
(n=3-5)
30 minutes
3 times a week
20 weeks
Paraprofessional
6 hours of hands-on
training; 3 days of on -site
training (teachers not pulled out)
No 0 studies
Academy of READING Fiedorowicz & Trites (1987) Group Design Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 2 Prereading
22 Reading
0.19*u 0.36u N/A No No Individual 30 minutes
3 times a week
8-12 weeks
Paraprofessional
6 hours of training
WWC & E-ESSA 2 studies
Academy of READING Torlaković (2011) Group Design Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence 8 Reading 0.36* 0.50* N/A Yes No Individual 30 minutes
3-5 times a week
13 weeks
Paraprofessional
6 hours of hands-on
training; 3 days of on-site
training (teachers not
pulled out)
WWC & E-ESSA 2 studies
Achieve Intervention Tracey & Young (2004) Group Design Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence 7 Reading 0.21u Data Unavailable N/A No No Individual
Small Group
(n=20-25)
40 minutes
2 times a week
35 weeks
Professional
1-2 days of training
No 0 studies
Burst:Reading Dubal, Hamly, Pavlov, Richards, Yambo, et al. (2012) Group Design Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable 1 Prereading
6 Reading
0.11* Data Unavailable N/A Yes No Small Group
(n=3-5)
30 minutes
5 times a week
Multiple weeks
Paraprofessional
Training time varies and can be more than 8 hours
No 0 studies
Burst:Reading Pappas, York, Wang, & Richards (2015) Group Design Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 2 Prereading
16 Reading
0.09* 0.08* N/A Yes No Small Group
(n=4-6)
30 minutes
5 times a week
Multiple weeks
Paraprofessional
1-2 full days of training
No 0 studies
Cover Copy Compare Becker, McLaughlin, Weber, & Gower (2009) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Data Unavailable 1 Math Data Unavailable Data Unavailable Unconvincing Evidence No No Individual
Small Group
2-10 minutes
3-5 times a week
1-2 weeks
School staff
Familiarity with Cover Copy Compare strategy
No 6 studies
Cover Copy Compare Cieslar, McLaughlin, & Derby (2008) Single-Subject Design Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Data Unavailable 1 Math Data Unavailable Data Unavailable Partially Convincing Evidence No No Individual
Small Group
10 minutes
3-7 sessions
School staff
Familiarity with Cover Copy Compare strategy
No 6 studies
Cover Copy Compare Codding, Eckert, Fanning, Shiyko, & Solomon (2007) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Data Unavailable 1 Math Data Unavailable Data Unavailable Unconvincing Evidence No No Individual
Small Group
15 minutes
1 time a week
16 weeks
School staff
Familiarity with Cover Copy Compare strategy
No 6 studies
Cover Copy Compare Cressey & Ezbicki (2008) Group Design Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable 1 Math -0.49u Data Unavailable N/A No No Individual
Small Group
10 minutes
5 times a week
4 weeks
School staff
Familiarity with Cover Copy Compare strategy
No 6 studies
Cover Copy Compare Poff, McLaughlin, Derby, & King (2012) Single-Subject Design Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Data Unavailable 1 Math Data Unavailable Data Unavailable Unconvincing Evidence No No Individual
Small Group
15-20 minutes
12 sessions
School staff
Familiarity with Cover Copy Compare strategy
No 6 studies
Cover Copy Compare Poncy, Skinner, & Jaspers (2007) Single-Subject Design Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Data Unavailable 1 Math Data Unavailable Data Unavailable Partially Convincing Evidence No No Individual
Small Group
4-7 minutes
7 sessions
School staff
Familiarity with Cover Copy Compare strategy
No 6 studies
Early Numeracy Intervention Level 1 Bryant, et al. (2011) Group Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 11 Math 0.46* 0.21* N/A No No Small Group
(n=4-5)
25-30 minutes
3-4 times a week
19 weeks
Paraprofessional
Less than 1 hour of training
No 0 studies
Early Vocabulary Connections Nelson, Vadasy, & Sanders (2011) Group Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 3 Reading 0.67*u Data Unavailableu N/A No No Small Group
(n=2-5)
20 minutes
5 times a week
20 weeks
Paraprofessional
Training not required
No 1 study
Enhanced Core Reading Instruction Fien et al. (2015); Smith et al. (2016) Group Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 10 Reading 0.43* 0.44* N/A No Yes Small Group
(n=3-5)
30 minutes
5 times a week
30 weeks
Paraprofessional
2-3 days of training
E-ESSA 0 studies
Failure Free Reading Torgesen, Myers, Schirm, Stuart, Vartivarian, et al. (2006) Group Design Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 14 Reading 0.08 -0.03 N/A No No Small Group
(n=3)
60 minutes
5 times a week
18 weeks
Teachers WWC 0 studies
Fast ForWord Language Series Miller, Merzenich, Tallal, DeVivo, Linn, et al. (1999) Group Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence 2 Prereading
1 Reading
0.59* Data Unavailable N/A Yes Yes Small groups 100 minutes
5 times a week
8 weeks
Paraprofessional
4-8 hours of training
WWC & E-ESSA 16 studies
Fast ForWord Language Series Scientific Learning Corporation (2004) Group Design Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 2 Reading 0.44 0.51 N/A No Yes Small Group 90 minutes
5 times a week
7 weeks
Paraprofessional
4-8 hours of training
WWC & E-ESSA 16 studies
Fast ForWord Language Series Slattery (2003) Group Design Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 1 Prereading
1 Reading
Data Unavailable Data Unavailable N/A No No Small Group 100 minutes
5 times a week
6 weeks
Paraprofessional
4-8 hours of training
WWC & E-ESSA 16 studies
focusMATH Intensive Intervention Styers & Baird-Wilkerson (2011) Group Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable 15 Math 0.23* Data Unavailable N/A No No Small Group
(n=3-8)
30-40 minutes
2 times a week
21-29 weeks
Paraprofessional
Training is not required
E-ESSA 0 studies
Fraction Face-Off! (previously Fraction Challenge) Fuchs, Schumacher, Long, Namkung, Hamlett, et al. (2012) Group Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 4 Math 1.81* 0.92* N/A No Yes Small Group
(n=2-3)
30 minutes
3 times a week
12 weeks
Paraprofessional
2 one-day trainings with follow-up
WWC & E-ESSA 0 studies
Fusion (Whole Number Foundations Level 1) Clarke, Doabler, Strand Cary, Kosty, Baker, et al. (2013) Technical Report Group Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 3 Math 0.84* 0.13 N/A No No Small Group
(n=3-5)
30 minutes
3 times a week
20 weeks
Paraprofessional
1-4 hours of training
No 0 studies
Headsprout Huffstetter, King, Onwuegbuzie, Schneider, & Powell-Smith (2010) Group Design Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 2 Reading Data Unavailable 0.77*u N/A No No Individual 20 minutes
3 times a week
25 weeks
Paraprofessional
No training required
WWC 3 studies
Headsprout Tyler, Hughes, Beverley, & Hastings (2015) Group Design Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Data Unavailable 1 Reading Data Unavailable Data Unavailable N/A No No Individual 20 minutes
3 times a week
25 weeks
Paraprofessional
Training is not required
WWC 3 studies
Hot Math Tutoring Fuchs, Fuchs, Craddock, Hollenbeck, Hamlett, et al. (2008) Group Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 3 Math 1.15* 0.60* N/A No No Small Group
(n=2-4)
20-30 minutes
3 times a week
13 weeks
Paraprofessional
8 hours of training plus weekly follow-up
E-ESSA 0 studies
Incremental Rehearsal Burns (2005) Single-Subject Design Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable 1 Math Data Unavailable Data Unavailable Convincing Evidence No No Individual 10-15 minutes
3-4 times a week
10-15 weeks
Paraprofessional
Training is not required
No 3 studies
Incremental Rehearsal Burns (2007) Group Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable 1 Math 1.45* Data Unavailableu N/A No No Individual 10-15 minutes
3-4 times a week
10-15 weeks
Paraprofessional
Training is not required
No 9 studies
iRead Hamilton, Gray-Adams, Chen, Puliln Gorga, McKithen, & von Glatz (2016 unpublished) Group Design Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 3 Reading 0.13 0.28 N/A No No Individual
Small Group
(n=3-6)
20 minutes
3-5 times a week
36 weeks
Literacy Professional
No training required
No 1 study
Leveled Literacy Intervention System Ransford-Kaldon, Flynt, Ross, Franceschini, Zoblotsky, et al. (2010) Group Design Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 4 Prereading
8 Reading
0.65*u Data Unavailable*u N/A No No Small Group
(n=3)
30 minutes
5 times per week
14-18 weeks
Professional
Training is not required;
8 days of PD recommended
No 0 studies
Lexia Reading Core5 (formerly Lexia Reading) Macaruso & Rodman (2009) Group Design Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 1 Prereading
5 Reading
1 Writing
0.10* -0.08 N/A No No Individual 20-30 minutes
2-3 times per week
20 weeks
Paraprofessional
1-8 hours of training
WWC & E-ESSA 3 studies
Lexia Reading Core5 (formerly Lexia Reading) Macaruso & Rodman (2011) Group Design Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 6 Prereading
5 Reading
0.49* -0.28 N/A No No Individual 15-20 minutes
2-3 times per week
12 weeks
Paraprofessional
1-8 hours of training
WWC & E-ESSA 3 studies
Lexia Reading Core5 (formerly Lexia Reading) Macaruso & Walker (2008) Group Design Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 4 Prereading
2 Reading
-0.11 0.31* N/A Yes No Individual 15-20 minutes
2-3 times per week
23-24 weeks
Paraprofessional
1-8 hours of training
WWC & E-ESSA 3 studies
Lexia Reading Core5 (formerly Lexia Reading) Macaruso, Hook, & McCabe (2006) Group Design Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Data Unavailable Convincing Evidence 1 Prereading
2 Reading
Data Unavailable 0.58 N/A Yes No Individual 30-60 minutes
2-3 times per week
24 weeks
Paraprofessional
1-8 hours of training
WWC & E-ESSA 3 studies
Lexia Reading Core5 (formerly Lexia Reading) Schechter, Macaruso, Kazakoff, & Brooke (2015) Group Design Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable 3 Reading 0.29 Data Unavailable N/A Yes No Individual
Small Group
20-30 minutes
1-5 times per week
25-30 weeks
Paraprofessional
1-4 hours of training
WWC & E-ESSA 3 studies
MATH 180 HMH (2014) Group Design Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Data Unavailable Convincing Evidence 1 Math Data Unavailable Data Unavailable N/A Yes No Small Group
(n=12)
45-60 minutes
5 times a week
Paraprofessional
16-24 hours of training
E-ESSA 2 studies
Math Recovery Smith, Cobb, Earran, Cordray, Munter, et al. (2007) Group Design Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 6 Math Data Unavailable Data Unavailable N/A No No Individual 30 minutes
4-5 times per week
11 weeks
Professional/Teaching
experience preferred, but not required.
12 month PD course with onsite mentoring
and 4-8 hours of training
E-ESSA 0 studies
MindPlay Virtual Reading Coach Crews (2004) Group Design Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Data Unavailable Convincing Evidence 3 Reading Data Unavailable Data Unavailable N/A No No Small Group 50 minutes
3 times per week
36 weeks
Paraprofessional
4-8 hours of training
E-ESSA 0 studies
MindPlay Virtual Reading Coach: MindPlay Fluency Serido & Wilhelm (2006) Group Design Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Data Unavailable Convincing Evidence 3 Reading Data Unavailable 0.26* N/A Yes No Individual
Small Groups
(n=2-4)
30-60 minutes
3-4 times a week
14-24 weeks
Paraprofessional
4-8 hours of training
E-ESSA 0 studies
MindPlay Virtual Reading Coach: MindPlay Fluency Serido & Wilhelm (2008) Group Design Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 6 Reading Data Unavailable 0.04 N/A No No Individual
Small Groups
(n=2-4)
25-30 minutes
3 times a week
14-24 weeks
Paraprofessional
4-8 hours of training
E-ESSA 0 studies
Number Rockets Fuchs, Compton, Fuchs, Paulsen, Bryant, et al. (2005) Group Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 7 Math 0.45* 0.10 N/A No No Small Group
(n=2-3)
40 minutes
3 times a week
16 weeks
Paraprofessional
8 hours of training plus
weekly follow-up
E-ESSA 2 studies
NumberShire Level 1 Fien, Doabler, Nelson, Kosty, & Clarke (submitted for publication) Group Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 4 Math 0.33* 0.18 N/A No No Individual
Small Group
15 minutes
4 times a week
12 weeks
Facilitators
Training is not required
E-ESSA 0 studies
Pirate Math Individual Tutoring Fuchs, Powell, Seethaler, Cirino, Fletcher, et al. (2009) Group Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 6 Math 0.65* 0.56* N/A No Yes Individual 20-30 minutes
3 times a week
16 weeks
Paraprofessional
8 hours of training plus weekly follow-up
E-ESSA 3 studies
Promoting Acceleration of Comprehension and Content Through Text (PACT) Swanson, Wanzek, Vaughn, Fall, Roberts, Hall, et al. (2017) Group Design Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 4 Reading
1 Social Studies
Data Unavailable* Data Unavailable N/A No No Small Group
(n=8-10)
45 minutes
5 times a week
full school year
Professional
Training is not required
E-ESSA 8 studies
QuickReads Vadasy & Sanders (2008) Group Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 6 Reading 0.22 0.21* N/A No No Small Group
(n=1-2)
30 minutes
4 times a week
18 weeks
Paraprofessional
Training is not required
E-ESSA 2 studies
READ 180 Hamilton, Meisch, Chen, Quintanilla, Fong, et al. (2011) Group Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Data Unavailable Convincing Evidence 9 Reading Data Unavailable 0.07* N/A Yes No Individual
Small Group
90 minutes
5 times a week
up to 3 years
Professional
2 days of in-person training in order to implement the program
WWC & E-ESSA 5 studies
READ 180 Kim, Capotosto, Hartry, & Fitzgerald (2011) Group Design Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Data Unavailable Convincing Evidence 2 Reading
1 Writing
Data Unavailable Data Unavailable N/A No No Individual
Small Groups
(n=10)
60 minutes
4 times a week
23 weeks
Professional
2 days of in-person training in order to implement the program
WWC & E-ESSA 5 studies
READ 180 Lang, Torgesen, Vogel, Chanter, Lefsky, et al. (2009) Group Design Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable Convincing Evidence 1 Reading Data Unavailable Data Unavailable N/A Yes No Individual
Small Groups
(n=21)
90 minutes
5 times a week
36 weeks
Professional
2 days of in-person training in order to implement the program
WWC & E-ESSA 5 studies
READ 180 Scholastic Research (2008); White & Haslam (2005a); White & Haslam (2005b) Group Design Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Data Unavailable Convincing Evidence 3 Reading Data Unavailable Data Unavailable*u N/A Yes No Individual
Small Group
90 minutes
5 times a week
1 year
Professional
2 days of in-person training in order to implement the program
WWC & E-ESSA 5 studies
READ 180 Sprague, Zaller, Kite, & Hussar (2011) Group Design Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Data Unavailable Convincing Evidence 2 Reading Data Unavailable 0.20* N/A No No Individual
Small Groups
90 minutes
5 times a week
36 weeks
Professional
2 days of in-person training in order to implement the program
WWC & E-ESSA 5 studies
Read Aloud Small-Group Curriculum Fien, Santoro, Baker, Park, Chard, et al. (2011) Group Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 3 Reading Data Unavailable*u Data Unavailable N/A No No Small Group
(n=2-5)
20 minutes
4 times a week
9 weeks
Paraprofessional
4-8 hours of training
No 1 study
Read Naturally Christ & Davie (2009) Group Design Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 7 Reading 0.38* -0.07 N/A No No Small Group
(n=3-5)
30 minutes
5 times a week
8 weeks
Professional
6 hours of training
WWC 6 studies
Read Naturally Heistad (2005) Group Design Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable 3 Reading Data Unavailableu Data Unavailable N/A No No Small Group
(n=5-10)
30 minutes
3-5 times a week
30 weeks
Paraprofessional / Volunteer
6 hours of training
WWC 6 studies
Read Naturally Tucker & Jones (2010) Group Design Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable 3 Reading 0.71 Data Unavailable N/A No No Small Group
(n=2-6)
30 minutes
3 times a week
10 weeks
Paraprofessional
4-8 hours of training
WWC 6 studies
Read Right Scott, Nelsestuen, Autio, Deussen, & Hanita (2010) Group Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable Convincing Evidence 5 Reading Data Unavailable 0.25* N/A Yes No Small Group
(n=4-5)
40 minutes
5 times a week
12 weeks
Paraprofessional
7 weeks of hands-on training
spread over 18 weeks
No 0 studies
Reading for All Learners Callow-Heusser & Sanborn (2016) Group Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable 2 Prereading
3 Reading
Data Unavailableu Data Unavailable N/A Yes No Individual
Small Group
(n=2-6)
20 minutes
5 times a week
8 weeks
Paraprofessional
No training required
No 1 study
Reading Plus Reutzel, Petscher, & Spichtig (in press) Group Design Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Data Unavailable Convincing Evidence 2 Reading Data Unavailable Data Unavailable*u N/A No No Individual 30 minutes
3 times a week
20 weeks
Paraprofessional
4-8 hours of training
WWC 1 study
Reading Recovery Center, Wheldall, Freeman, Outhred, & McNaught (1995) Group Design Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence 1 Prereading
7 Reading
1.48*u Data Unavailable*u N/A No No Individual 30 minutes
5 times a week
15 weeks
Professional
An academic year of training
with university credit
WWC & E-ESSA 3 studies
Reading Recovery Iversen & Tunmer (1993) Group Design Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 6 Prereading
4 Reading
Data Unavailable*u Data Unavailableu N/A No No Individual 30 minutes
5 times a week
12-20 weeks
Professional
An academic year of training
with university credit
WWC & E-ESSA 3 studies
Reading Recovery May, Sirinides, Gray, & Goldsworthy (2016) Group Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 4 Reading 0.93* 0.42* N/A No Yes Individual 30 minutes
5 times a week
12-20 weeks
Professional
An academic year of training with university credit
WWC & E-ESSA 3 studies
Reading Recovery Schwartz (2005) Group Design Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 3 Prereading
7 Reading
1.15*u Data Unavailable N/A No No Individual 30 minutes
5 times a week
12-20 weeks
Professional
An academic year of training
with university credit
WWC & E-ESSA 3 studies
Responsive Reading Instruction Denton, Nimon, Mathes, Swanson, Kethley, et al. (2010) Group Design Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 2 Prereading
13 Reading
Data Unavailable*u Data Unavailable*u N/A No No Small Group
(n=3-4)
40 minutes
5 times a week
25 weeks
Paraprofessional
18 hours of training
E-ESSA 0 studies
Responsive Reading Instruction Mathes, Denton, Fletcher, Anthony, Francis, et al. (2005) Group Design Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 3 Reading
1 Writing
1 Math
Data Unavailable Data Unavailable N/A No No Small Group
(n=3)
40 minutes
5 times a week
32 weeks
Professional
42 hours of training
E-ESSA 0 studies
ROOTS (Whole Number Foundations Level K) Clarke, Doabler, Smolkowski, Baker, Fien, et al. (2011) Group Design Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable Convincing Evidence 4 Math Data Unavailable 0.21 N/A No Yes Small Group
(n=4-5)
20 minutes
3 times a week
17-18 weeks
Paraprofessional
1-4 hours of training
E-ESSA 0 studies
ROOTS (Whole Number Foundations Level K) Clarke, Doabler, Smolkowski, Kurtz-Nelson, Fien, & Baker (2015) Group Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 5 Math 0.75* 0.38* N/A No Yes Small Group
(n=5)
20 minutes
4-5 times a week
17-18 weeks
Paraprofessional
1-4 hours of training
E-ESSA 0 studies
Seeing Stars Bell, Hungerford, Flowers, Worthington, & Fitler (Tech. Rep) Group Design Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 10 Reading
1 Writing
0.49* 0.19* N/A No No Small Group
(n=2-6)
90 minutes
5 times a week
12-15 weeks
Paraprofessional
1 week initially, then mentoring
E-ESSA 0 studies
Seeing Stars Bell, Worthington, Hungerford, Fitler, & Flowers (Tech. Rep) Group Design Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 10 Reading
1 Writing
0.54* 0.03* N/A No No Small Group
(n=2-5)
90 minutes
5 times a week
26-30 weeks
Paraprofessional
1 week initially, then mentoring
E-ESSA 0 studies
Seeing Stars plus Visualizing and Verbalizing and Phoneme Sequencing Burke, Howard, & Evangelou (2005) Group Design Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 10 Reading
1 Writing
0.47*u 0.41*u N/A No No Small Group
(n=1-3)
50 minutes
15 times a week
8-10 weeks
Paraprofessional
1 week initially, then mentoring
No 0 studies
Sound Partners (1-3) Vadasy, Sanders, & Peyton (2005) Group Design Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 1 Prereading
7 Reading
1 Writing
0.80* 0.76* N/A No No Individual 30 minutes
4 times a week
28 weeks
Paraprofessional / Tutor
2-4 hours of initial training with
weekly on-site coaching and
modeling for one year
WWC & E-ESSA 4 studies
Sound Partners Kindergarten Vadasy & Sanders (2010) Group Design Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 2 Prereading
3 Reading
1 Writing
0.76* 0.40* N/A No Yes Individual 30 minutes
4 times a week
18 weeks
Paraprofessional
4 hours of training
WWC & E-ESSA 4 studies
Sound Partners Kindergarten Vadasy, & Sanders (2008) Group Design Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 2 Prereading
4 Reading
1 Writing
0.22* 0.39 N/A No No Individual 30 minutes
4 times a week
18 weeks
Paraprofessional
4 hours of training
WWC & E-ESSA 4 studies
Sound Partners Kindergarten Vadasy, Sanders, & Peyton (2006) Group Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 2 Prereading
4 Reading
1 Writing
0.56* 0.40* N/A No No Individual 30 minutes
4 times a week
18 weeks
Paraprofessional
4 hours of training
WWC & E-ESSA 4 studies
Spring Math Codding, VanDerHeyden, Martin, & Perrault (2016) Group Design Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 2 Math 0.52 0.14 N/A No No Individual
Small Group
(n=4-30)
15-20 minutes
5 times a week
15-32 weeks
Paraprofessional
Less than 1 hour of training
No 0 studies
Spring Math VanDerHeyden, McLaughlin, Algina, & Snyder (2012) Group Design Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 6 Math 0.68* 0.10 N/A Yes Yes Individual
Small Group
(n=4-30)
15-20 minutes
5 times a week
15-32 weeks
Paraprofessional
Less than 1 hour of training
No 0 studies
SRSD For Writing Strategies Graham, Harris, & Mason (2005) Group Design Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable 15 Writing Data Unavailable*u Data Unavailable N/A No No Individual
Small Group
(n=2)
20 minutes
3 times a week
10.7 weeks
Paraprofessional
2 weeks of training
No 53 studies
SRSD For Writing Strategies Harris, Graham, & Mason (2006) Group Design Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable 15 Writing Data Unavailable*u Data Unavailable N/A No No Individual
Small Group
(n=2)
20 minutes
3 times a week
15-19 weeks
Paraprofessional
2 weeks of training
No 53 studies
SRSD For Writing Strategies Lane, Harris, Graham, Driscoll, Sandel, et al. (2011) Group Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 14 Writing Data Unavailable*u Data Unavailableu N/A No No Individual
Small Group
(n=2)
30 minutes
3-4 times a week
8 weeks
Paraprofessional
12 hours of training
No 53 studies
Stepping Stones to Literacy Nelson, Sanders, & Gonzalez (2010) Group Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 3 Prereading
1 Reading
Data Unavailableu Data Unavailableu N/A No No Small Group
(n=2-6)
20 minutes
5 times a week
10 weeks
Professional
Training is not required
WWC 0 studies
Stepping Stones to Literacy Nelson, Benner, & Gonzalez (2005) Group Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 4 Prereading
2 Reading
Data Unavailable*u Data Unavailable N/A No No Small Group 20 minutes
3 times a week
8 weeks
Professional
Training is not required
WWC 0 studies
Stepping Stones to Literacy Nelson, Stage, Epstein, & Pierce (2005) Group Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 3 Prereading
2 Reading
0.83*u Data Unavailableu N/A No No Small Group 20 minutes
3 times a week
8 weeks
Professional
Training is not required
WWC 0 studies
Structured Supplemental Spelling Instruction Graham, Harris, & Chorzempa (2002) Group Design Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 1 Prereading
2 Reading
6 Writing
Data Unavailable*u Data Unavailable*u N/A No No Small Group
(n=2)
20 minutes
3 times a week
16 weeks
Paraprofessional No 0 studies
System 44 Next Generation Beam, Faddis, & Hahn (2012) Group Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 4 Prereading
4 Reading
Data Unavailableu 0.06u N/A No No Small groups
(n=5-7)
50-60 minutes
5 times a week
Paraprofessional
4-8 hours of training
No 2 studies
Taped Problems Bliss, Skinner, McCallum, Saecker, Rowland-Bryant, & Brown (2010) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Data Unavailable 1 Math Data Unavailable Data Unavailable Unconvincing Evidence No No Individual 8-10 minutes
5 times a week
3 weeks
Training is not required No 0 studies
Taped Problems Cressey & Ezbicki (2008) Group Design Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable 1 Math -0.70u Data Unavailable N/A No No Individual 8-10 minutes
5 times a week
3 weeks
Training is not required No 0 studies
Taped Problems Krohn, Skinner, Fuller, & Greear (2012) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Data Unavailable 1 Math Data Unavailable Data Unavailable Unconvincing Evidence No No Individual 8-10 minutes
5 times a week
3 weeks
Training is not required No 0 studies
Taped Problems McCallum & Schmitt (2011) Single-Subject Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Data Unavailable 1 Math Data Unavailable Data Unavailable Partially Convincing Evidence No No Individual 8-10 minutes
5 times a week
3 weeks
Training is not required No 0 studies
Taped Problems McCallum, Skinner, & Hutchins (2004) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Data Unavailable 1 Math Data Unavailable Data Unavailable Partially Convincing Evidence No No Individual 8-10 minutes
5 times a week
3 weeks
Training is not required No 0 studies
Taped Problems Poncy, Skinner, & Jaspers (2007) Single-Subject Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Unconvincing Evidence Data Unavailable 1 Math Data Unavailable Data Unavailable Convincing Evidence No No Individual 8-10 minutes
5 times a week
3 weeks
Training is not required No 0 studies
Tutoring Buddy DuBois, Volpe, & Hemphill (2014) Group Design Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 3 Prereading 0.74* 0.87* N/A Yes No Individual 5 minutes
3-4 times a week
6+ weeks
No minimum qualification for instructor
1-4 hours of training required
E-ESSA 0 studies
Tutoring Buddy DuBois, Volpe, Burns, & Hoffman (Tentatively accepted) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 3 Prereading Data Unavailable Data Unavailable Convincing Evidence No No Individual 5 minutes
3-4 times a week
6+ weeks
No minimum qualification for instructor
1-4 hours of training required
E-ESSA 0 studies
Tutoring Buddy Volpe, Burns, DuBois, & Zaslofsky (2011) Single-Subject Design Unconvincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Partially Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Data Unavailable 2 Prereading Data Unavailable Data Unavailable Partially Convincing Evidence No No Individual 5 minutes
3-4 times a week
6+ weeks
No minimum qualification for instructor
1-4 hours of training required
E-ESSA 0 studies
Words Their Way: Word Study In Action Developmental Model Eddy, Ruitman, Hankel, Matelski, & Schmalstig (2011) Group Design Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence Convincing Evidence 1 Prereading
1 Reading
1 Writing
0.11* 0.00 N/A No No Small Group
(n=2-8)
20 minutes
4 times a week
18 weeks
Paraprofessional
Training is not required
E-ESSA 0 studies